četvrtak, 29. lipnja 2017.

Is sea air good for you?

The summer holidays are here, which means there’ll soon be crowds flocking to the coast to spend the day at the beach. The supposed benefits of ‘fresh sea air’ are commonly extolled, but its origins might not be what you think: it’s the chemical compounds produced by algae and seaweed that contribute towards its characteristic smell.
Seaweed is one of the more obvious sources of malodorous compounds. It’s commonly seen washed up on the fringes of the sea, and as it decomposes, it can produce gases that contribute to the ‘sea smell’. The principle gas produced is hydrogen sulfide, which is generated via the bacterial breakdown of organic compounds in the seaweed. Hydrogen sulfide has an odour commonly described as akin to rotting eggs, and is actually a toxic gas in high concentrations.
However, before you start sprinting in terror from seaweed on all future vacations, it’s worth pointing out that, at low concentrations, hydrogen sulfide is harmless. In fact, it’s naturally produced in the body (it’s also a big contributor to the odour of flatulence), and since our bodies are capable of breaking it down, it can be tolerated at low levels pretty much indefinitely.
Seaweed isn’t the only plant that has a hand in the smell of the sea, however. Perhaps the most important contributor is algae. Algae contain a compound called dimethylsulfoniopropiante (DMSP for short) in their cells. The precise role of this compound still isn’t exactly known, but amongst other things, it’s thought to regulate the volume of the cells, and the fluid levels. This compound can be broken down, both by enzymes in the algae, and by bacteria. When this occurs, dimethylsulfide (DMS) is one of the compounds that can be produced.
DMS is another compound with a disagreeable odour at high concentrations – often compared to that of cabbage. Birds are actually attracted to the smell, as plankton in the sea also produced the gas, and this can lead them to fish. Huge quantities of DMS are produced in the ocean, with a billion tonnes being a rough estimate. DMS and hydrogen sulfide aren’t the sole contributors to the sea smell though – chemical derivatives of DMS can also have a hand.
After a while, the sulfurous algae emissions escape into the atmosphere, where beachgoers get the benefit of its lovely smell. That slow seep is actually the most abundant source of biological sulfur in the atmosphere—sulfur that helps with cloud formation. Scientists think that it plays a major role in controlling the planet’s temperature. “If these reactions didn’t exist, we would have a much different planet, and it wouldn’t be habitable," says Zeljko Serdar. "We rely on these microorganisms catalyzing these particular reactions as part of their metabolism for us to be able to live."
So that characteristic smell of the sea breeze? It’s how the creatures of the ocean, from the tiny plankton to the seabirds, converse with each other, ultimately making your beach vacation possible.
Finally, is sea air good for you? On that question, the jury seems to be out. Most of the studies that conclude that it is seem to rely on self-evaluations of the health of people living near the sea compared to those living further from it, with actual proven health benefits seeming thin on the ground. That said, as you lay back and savour the scent of the decay products of algae and seaweed, you can see why some people might find the idea that it’s good for them an encouraging thought! 



četvrtak, 22. lipnja 2017.


Asking a question that assumes a particular answer is easy to do when you already think you're right and just want people to say you're right. The chemtrail conspiracy theory is the claim that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for unknown purposes undisclosed to the general public Believers (like me, myself & I) in the theory argue that normal contrails dissipate relatively quickly and that contrails that do not dissipate must contain additional substances.

We ask some question? #Chemtrail! Here are some answers from Weather Modification Inc. 3802 20th St. N Fargo, ND 58102 USA

Zeljko Serdar, CCRES
Who are you?
Weather Modification, Inc., is a global atmospheric sciences company committed to continued advances in the field of weather modification.
Weather Modification, Inc., has a wide range of services to provide knowledge, data, equipment and capability at any phase in your project. We can also tailor a program to meet your specific objectives and manage it from beginning to end.
Our talented scientists, researchers, project managers, technicians, and pilots have the expertise you need to carry out an efficient, effective weather program.

Cloud seeding?
Aerial cloud seeding is the process of delivering a seeding agent by aircraft - either at the cloud base or cloud top. Top seeding allows for direct injection of the seeding agent into the supercooled cloud top. Base seeding is the release of the seeding agent in the updraft of a cloud base.
Water resources are increasingly taxed by exploding demand and continued population growth. The world's population is projected to grow over 40% in the next 45 years.
Weather modification, commonly known as cloud seeding, is the application of scientific technology that can enhance a cloud's ability to produce precipitation. Weather Modification, Inc., is on the forefront of scientific technology to maximize water availability worldwide. Application of scientific concepts and extensive scientific experimentation has proven that cloud seeding increases the amount of precipitation.

What are the common applications of cloud seeding?
Cloud seeding is most commonly used to increase precipitation, both in warm and cold seasons (summer and winter). Spring and summer operations are usually conducted from aircraft, as the clouds of interest are convective (cumuliform). Winter storms are most often seeded to increase the snowfall over mountainous terrain. In these cold-season programs, seeding can be done either from aircraft or from ground-based facilities.
Warm season cloud seeding is also used to mitigate hail damage to homes, automobiles, property and crops. Hail damage mitigation efforts utilize airborne delivery of the seeding material.
In addition, cold fogs, those made of cloud droplets but existing at cold temperatures (less than 0°C); can often be dissipated by seeding with ice-forming agents.

How can the effectiveness of cloud seeding operations be determined?
The success of cloud seeding programs for increased participation can be measured using precipitation gauge data to compare rainfall or snowfall during comparable seeded and non-seeded periods. Another evaluation technique relies on the comparison of seeded seasons with other non-seeded seasons in the same location. For warm season seeding projects, weather radar is sometimes used for evaluations, because all the clouds within range are measured. Some wintertime projects, designed to increase snowfall and subsequent runoff, measure changes in stream flows to assess the impact of seeding efforts.

What are the environmental consequences of weather modification?
Environmental impact from cloud seeding operations can be broken into two categories:
The effects of the chemical seeding agents used for the programs
The impacts of precipitation changes

Environmental Impact from Cloud Seeding Agents
The active ingredient in cold cloud seeding agents is silver iodide, or AgI. Unlike ionic silver, the silver iodide compound is very stable, essentially inert. Numerous studies have been conducted that clearly demonstrate its safety. Even projects operated for decades have experienced no adverse environmental impacts because of silver iodide. Additional information about the safety of silver iodide, is found in many studies and reports. The active ingredient in warm cloud seeding is simple salt, either sodium chloride (NaCl, table salt), or calcium chloride (CaCl). Both are found abundantly in the environment; sea spray releases millions of tons of NaCl into the atmosphere annually.
Environmental Impact of Precipitation Changes
The effects of cloud seeding on precipitation are typically on the order of 10%, while seasonal natural variability may be as much as a factor of two. When viewed in this context, the seasonal effects resulting from increased precipitation are negligible.

Are cloud seeding activities subject to regulation or control?
In the United States, most states have laws in place that require permits for all cloud seeding activities, and that those persons conducting the projects be qualified to do so. In addition, site-specific permits and/or environmental evaluations may sometimes be required. U.S. Federal law requires that all cloud seeding operations be reported annually to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

How quickly can Weather Modification, Inc. , launch a project?
Depending upon the location and nature of the program, we may be able to mobilize an effective program within a few weeks of a signed contract. The fastest response generally includes the use of facilities owned by Weather Modification, Inc., including aircraft, radars and ground-based seeding equipment. If a client wants to use aircraft they already own, additional time is required to make required aircraft modifications and obtain needed certifications. Because of our extensive experience and resources, Weather Modification, Inc., does this faster than anyone.

Do I need to have my own aircraft, or does Weather Modification, Inc. , supply them?
We operate a fleet of reliable twin-engine aircraft suitable for virtually every project, from warm season cloud base seeding operations, to wintertime operations in known icing conditions, to on-top convective storm treatment and/or atmospheric assessment and evaluation. We can even handle your high-altitude (up to 43,000 ft) research needs.
If you wish to use your own aircraft, we can quickly install all requisite seeding equipment and instrumentation for you.
Either way, your program can be up and running quickly and safely.

What does a cloud seeding project cost?
The cost of a project depends upon the target area size, season and topography, types of seeding to be conducted, needed equipment and personnel, and the length of the desired project period. It is usually better to consider benefit-to-cost ratios. If you think you might be interested, contact us and we’ll be happy to assess your needs and offer an estimate.

If I am interested in starting a weather modification project, where do I begin?
You can contact us by telephone, mail, fax – or via our simple online form. Or if you prefer, e-mail us at info@weathermodification.com. Tell us where and when you need your project, what you hope to accomplish, and we’ll help you get started.

Some for the end?
Let us help you better manage your atmospheric and water resources.
When most people look up they see clouds.

ponedjeljak, 15. svibnja 2017.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine In Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) is a modified form of carnitine, an amino acid derivative found in red meat, which is readily absorbed throughout the body, including the brain. It is involved in fatty acid metabolism and may improve several aspects of brain health, including mitochondrial function, activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and possibly cognition. However the data suggests that it does not provide a substantial cognitive benefit to patients with dementia.

L carnitine is a naturally occurring substance (amino acid) that is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids to produce energy. It is also known for its antioxidant properties.
L carnitine is produced in the liver and the kidneys. This biologically active amino acid helps burn fatty acids into fuel for energy. It can also be found in foods and diet or health supplements which are often promoted as l carnitine weight loss because of its ability to boost energy and improve strength and stamina. Foods that contain l carnitine include red meat like beef and pork, nuts, legumes, fruits such as apricot and banana, and cereals.
Acetyl-L-carnitine appears to be effective in mild cognitive impairment. This may be an early signal of Alzheimer’s.
Reason: Acetyl-L-carnitine can protect the brain from neurotoxicity. It can also ward off oxygen deprivation. Acetyl-L-carnitine can even preserve cells energy-producing mitochondria. Plus, it can rejuvenate mental and physical function. Dosages for studies have been in the 1,500 – 4,000 mg range. These are divided into two or three doses. However, we recommend no more than 1,000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine a day without medical supervision.

1,200mg daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  General cognitive decline (not Alzheimer’s) shows similar benefit in aged individuals at 1-2g daily. The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain. In regards to human studies on Alzheimer’s disease, 1200 mg of Acetyl-L-Carnitine daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain A meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggests that supplements of acetyl-L-carnitine may improve mental function and reduce deterioration in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease . In these studies, subjects took acetyl-L-carnitine for 3–12 months.

L-karnitin je derivat esencijalnih aminokiselina lizina i metionina. Zadužen je za transport dugih lanaca masnih kiselina do mitohondrija, i to u stanicama za proces beta-oksidacije, tj. iskorištavanja dugolančanih masnih kiselina kao izvora energije.
Dva su oblika karnitina: L-karnitin - aktivni oblik i D-karnitin - slabo aktivan i toksičan, sprječava sintezu L-karnitina. Ta  "desno" orijentirana molekula nije normalno prisutna u namirnicama i u organizmu, a tijelo ju ne može iskoristiti.
L-karnitin se u organizmu sintetizira u jetri (90%) i bubrezima, odakle se transportira u druga tkiva. Najveće koncentracije nalaze se u tkivu koje konvertira masne kiseline u energiju, poput mišića skeleta i srčanog mišića. Tijelo odraslog čovjeka (oko 75 kg) sadrži oko 19 grama L-karnitina, prvenstveno u mišićima (puno manje u jetri). Majčino mlijeko sadrži oko 11 mg/l, pa se zato dodaje i u hranu za dojenčad i malu djecu.
Većina ljudi svakodnevnom prehranom unosi 50-200 mg L-karnitina. Katalizatori i uvjet za njegovu tvorbu su prisustvo željeza te vitamina C, B6 i niacina.
L-karnitin pomaže da masne stanice iz okoline pređu u mitohondrije, gdje se iskorištavaju kao energija. Naime, on služi kao nosač za transport masnih kiselina preko membrane u unutrašnjost mitohondrija gdje se odvija izgaranje masnih kiselina koje potom služe kao izvor energije. Na taj način L-karnitin može pridonijeti procesu mršavljenja gubitkom masti, ali ne potiče pojačano trošenje masnog tkiva. Ako nema dovoljno karnitina, masti se ne iskorištavaju za stvaranje energije nego se pojačano talože u mišićima i masnom tkivu. Posljedica su slabost mišića i osjećaj opće slabosti.


Prvi korak u iskorištavanju triglicerida kao izvora energije je njihova hidroliza na masne kiseline i glicerol koji se zatim prenose do aktivnih tkiva gdje se oksidiraju da bi dali energiju. Kada glicerol uđe u aktivno tkivo, on se djelovanjem staničnih enzima pretvara u glicerol-3-fosfat, spoj koji ulazi u glikolitički put razgradnje glukoze i tako daje energiju. Masne kiseline se prvo moraju razgraditi, a zatim oksidirati. Taj proces odvija se samo u mitohondrijima. Masne se kiseline u mitohondrij prenose pomoću prijenosnika - karnitina. Kada uđu u mitohondrij one se odvajaju od njega i zatim razgrađuju postupnim oslobađanjem odsječaka od dva ugljikova atoma u obliku acetil-koenzima A (acetil-CoA). Taj proces razgradnje masnih kiselina zove se beta-oksidacija. Proces se ponavlja dok se cijeli lanac masne kiseline ne razgradi u niz molekula acetil-koenzima A. Za svaku molekulu acetil-koenzima A koja se odvoji od masne kiseline oslobode se ukupno 4 atoma vodika koji se oksidiraju u mitohondrijima i pritom nastaju velike količine energije.
Acetil-L-karnitin je derivat L-karnitina koji se s pomoću enzima acetil-L-karnitin-transferaze sintetizira u mozgu i jetri. U procesu oksidacije masnih kiselina sudjeluje u transportu koenzima u mitohondrije. Njegova je funkcija proizvodnja acetil-kolina (prijenos signala kroz živčane stanice) te smanjuje količinu kortizola u krvi čime sprječava propadanje tkiva. Također, preko nekih međumehanizama utječe na povišenje razine testosterona, a prema nekim istraživanjima i na povišenje razine hormona rasta. Pridonosi i boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji.

Slika 2. - Acetil-L-karnitin
Hrana biljnog podrijetla oskudan je izvor L-karnitina. Bogati izvori su meso i mliječni proizvodi. Npr. mrkva ima oko 0,5 mg/100 g L-karnitina, a crveno meso oko 145 mg/100 g.  Iako je glavni izvor L-karnitina u prehrani crveno meso (naročito govedina i janjetina) čak i vegetarijanci mogu sintetizirati količine dovoljne da uz dostatnuu količinu aminokiselina lizina i metionina, te željeza, vitamina C, B6 i niacina sprječe insuficijenciju s težim posljedicama. 
Slika 3. - Crveno meso

Nedostaci L-karnitina

Nedostatak L-karnitina koji bi se mogao prepoznati nekim općim simptomima rijetka je pojava. Najteži oblik - sistematski nedostatak često je genetske prirode i može se utvrditi prema niskoj razini u serumu. Povećan gubitak L-karnitina moguć je kod bolesnika na hemodijalizi, a čest nedostatak uočen je kod prerano rođene djece hranjene mlijekom na  bazi soje, bez dodatka L-karnitina.
Prvi znaci nedostatka L-karnitina često su mišićna slabost i hipoglikemija.
Simptomi deficita su:
  •  slabi mišićni tonus i koordinacija
  •  kronično povišena tjelesna temperatura
  •  poteškoće u hranjenju
  •  gubitak na težini i/ili slabo napredovanje
  •  letargija i neobična slabost
  •  tvrdokorne i učestale infekcije
  •  simptomi nalik gripi
 Funkcije L-karnitina:
  •  usporava proces starenja tako što dovodi odgovarajuće količine energije u stanicu. Svaka stanica u tijelu će biti zdravija, ako joj je dostupna optimalna količina energije;
  •  smanjuje količinu triglicerida i povećava količinu visokozasićenog kolesterola, što prevenira srčane bolesti;
  •  može pomoći pri gubitku tjelesne težine, posebno u kombinaciji s redukcijskom dijetom s nižim udjelom kalorija iz ugljikohidrata, što bi trebalo dodatno potkrijepiti istraživanjima;
  •  neradikalno prilagođava razinu energije u tijelu, bez posljedica koje nastaju korištenjem nekih drugih visoko koncentriranih suplemenata. Štiti tkiva od oštećenja u slučaju pomanjkanja kisika;
  •  kao transporter energije u stanice pomaže njihovoj brzoj obnovi u slučaju bolesti ili oštećenja uzrokovanih intenzivnim treningom, te jača opći imunitet tijela;
  •  posebno je dobar za srce, jer pomaže u sprječavanju srčane aritmije, a acetil-L-karnitin je posebno koristan za živčani sustav i mozak, pa pomaže i u prevenciji Alzheimerove bolesti;
  •  pridonosi boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji;
  •  dokazano pomaže održanju razine imunoloških stanica CD4 (leukocita) kod oboljelih od virusa.
Najveći broj pojedinačnih znanstvenih radova odnosi se na korištenje L- karnitina kod vrlo aktivnih sportaša – natjecatelja. Ne bez razloga. Premda se L- karnitin u jetri sintetizira iz aminokiselina lizina i metionina, događa se da taj proces pretvaranja zakaže, osobito kad se njegova potrošnja poveća forsiranim treningom. U izgradnji L-karnitina (beta-hidroksi-gama-trimetilamonij butirata) pored navedenih aminokiselina, sudjeluju i C vitamin, nikotinamid, željezo te vitamin B6.
Modificirani oblik L-karnitina (propionil-L karnitin) postao je 'zanimljiv' kada je dvostruko slijepim istraživanjem potvrđeno da 500 mg/dan, poslije 6 mjeseci, može za 26% povećati kapacitet treninga. Ti rezultati nisu potvrđeni kasnijim istraživanjima. Međutim, utvrđeno je da korištenje L-karnitina smanjuje bolnost mišića. Mišljenje da će zbog utjecaja na energiju L-karnitin pomoći i u izgradnji mišićne mase, ili pak popraviti izdržljivost kod vježbanja, nije znanstveno potvrđeno.
Svi istraživači utjecaja L-karnitina slažu se u ocjeni da on vrlo pozitivno djeluje na rad srca što je indirektno ergogeno djelovanje - bolja mišićna kontrakcija zbog bolje opskrbe masnim kiselinama i veći volumen djelovanja. Također je poboljšana i oksigenacija tkiva i organa.
Ako se pak uvažava iskustvo aktivnih športaša, osobito body buildera i dizača utega, ono pokazuje da je L-karnitin jedno od najboljih sredstava za prevenciju njihovog najvećeg neprijatelja - kroničnog umora. Naime, L-karnitin usporava stvaranje mliječne kiseline u mišićima.
U jednom su pokusu praćeni parametri nastanka umora pri opterećenju srednjeg intenziteta kod pacijenta s anginom pektoris koji je dobivao L-karnitin. Primijećeni su poboljšanje i odgoda umora za čak 50%. Neki su pokusima znatno uzdrmali tezu o uštedi glikogena pod utjecajem suplementiranja L-karnitinom. L-karnitin ima jednu manu - sporo se apsorbira, pa je potrebno višekratno uzimanje. Prije nego bi se mogli uočiti bilo kakvi učinci, L-karnitin treba uzimati najmanje 4 tjedna. 
Slika 1. - Autor, Zeljko Serdar, HCOIE

Još neka istraživanja

Novija istraživanja vezana uz starenje pokazala su spektakularne rezultate na laboratorijskim životinjama. Kombinacija acetil-L-karnitina (esterificirani L-karnitin s dodatkom acetilne grupe, koji efikasnije djeluje u mozgu) i alfa lipoične kiseline (Alpha Lipoic Acid-ALA, univerzalni antioksidans i mitohondrijalni kofaktor) povećala je mitohondrijalnu energiju i snažno je djelovala na poboljšanje memorije. Bez obzira na uzbuđenje vezano uz ta otkrića, klinička istraživanja na ljudima, iako u pripremi, još nisu obavljena, barem ne u relevantnoj mjeri.
Neke preliminarne studije na bolesnicima s Alzheimerovom bolesti pokazuju da pacijenti stari do 65 godina pokazuju određeno usporenje napredovanja bolesti (suplementacija po 3 g/dan tijekom 12 mjeseci).
Kliničke studije provedene na pacijentima koji su doživjeli srčani udar i odmah potom, uz primjenu odgovarajućih lijekova dobivali su 4 g L-karnitina, pokazale su povoljne rezultate. U maloj studiji na 160 pacijenata, nakon tretmana od godine dana smrtnost je bila 1,2% u odnosu na 12.5% u placebo skupini. U drugoj skupini od 472 pacijenta, razlika fatalnih ishoda bila je bitno manja, no stanje srčane klijetke bilo je mnogo bolje u skupini koja je dobivala L-karnitin. Temeljem tih rezultata upravo je u tijeku velika studija na 4000 pacijenata.
L-karnitin dodan standardnoj kliničkoj terapiji za bolesti srca dao je dobre rezultate. Pacijenti koji su dobivali 1,5 g propionil-L-karnitina u periodu tijekom mjesec dana, pokazali su znatno bolju toleranciju na fizičke aktivnosti. Isto je pokazala i studija na 266 pacijenata tijekom 6 mjeseci. 2 g L-karnitina dobivali su bolesnici s anginom pektoris, što im je značajno produžilo vrijeme normalne fizičke aktivnosti.

Upotreba i doziranje

Za ljude s normalnim potrebama dovoljan je 1 g/dan. Preporučuje se uz doručak uzeti 500 mg, a ako se osoba bavi nekom fizičkom aktivnošću,  aerobnom ili anaerobnom, onda bi trebalo pola sata prije aktivnosti uzeti još 500 mg.
Potrebu za većim količinama imaju sportaši te jetreni i bubrežni bolesnici čiji organizam ne može proizvesti dovoljnu količinu.
Dnevna doza ne bi trebala prijeći 4 g, jer tada koža može poprimiti neugodan "riblji" miris. Intravenozno se L-karnitin daje samo u slučajevima utvrđenih genetskih nedostataka.
Treba voditi računa i o obliku u kojemu se L-karnitin uzima. Naime, količina od npr. 1g ne može se staviti u dovoljnu malu tabletu, jer L-karnitin treba i veću količinu tvari - nosača u tableti, što može dosta poskupiti proizvod. Zato se preporučuju i tekući pripravci s L-karnitinom.


L-karnitin nije čudotvorno sredstvo koje topi masti same za sebe, ali će osobama koje su odlučile uz proces redukcije tjelesne težine uložiti i nešto energije, pomoći da brže dođu do rezultata. Uzimanje L-karnitina  bez aerobne tjelesne aktivnosti ne daje velike rezultate, pa je njegovo samostalno uzimanje, bez kvalitetnog programa vježbanja, manje djelotvorno. 
Acetyl L-Carnitine može pomoći kod Alzheimera (odgađa progresiju i poboljšava stanje), depresije, mišićne distrofije, dijabetesa, oboljenja jetre. Koristan je i kod angine pektoris jer poboljšava iskorištavanje kisika i stvaranja energije u mitohondrijima.


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  5.  Gurlek A et al. The effects of L-carnitine treatment on left ventricular function and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2000 Jun;2(2):189-93.
  6.  Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002 Feb;282(2):E474-82.
  7.  Laplante A, Vincent G, Poirier M, Des Rosiers C. Effects and metabolism of fumarate in the perfused rat heart; A 13C mass isotopomer study. Am J Physiol 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):E74-82.
  8.  PDR® for Nutritional Supplements™. Hendler and Rorvik. Medical Economics Company, Inc. Montrale, NJ 2001.
  9.  Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):169-76.

ponedjeljak, 1. svibnja 2017.

Alternative treatments to delay or prevent Alzheimer’s disease

There are two different methods that can be used for the production of coenzyme Q10, one method employs a ‘natural’ process and the other uses chemical synthesis – a synthetic process. The natural process utilizes living organisms and is referred to as a biological fermentation/extraction process. CoenzymeQ10 can also be synthesized by a chemical process, which produces a similar, but distinctly different product that contains chemical compounds not found in the natural form. 


Parkinson’s disease is a common aging-related disorder that impacts the lives of many around the world. Parkinson’s disease occurs when the brain is no longer able to produce certain protein’s the control motor functions, and eventually, cognitive functions.
When a person suffers from Parkinson’s disease, they may experience weakness, slowed movement, and cognitive impairment. Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are measures you can take to help control the symptoms.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may slow the progression of the disease. Animal studies have found that CoQ10 decreases the damage done to the neurons in the brain affected by Parkinson’s disease.
Alzheimer’s disease impacts the lives of millions of people every year and is the sixth leading cause of death. Alzheimer’s disease may develop for several reasons: aging, genetics, oxidative stress on the brain, just to name a few.
Animal studies have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps relieve the oxidative stress on a brain related to Alzheimer’s disease. When a brain is overwhelmed by oxidative stress, it suffers from inflammation and results in the loss of cognition, memory, and the loss of physical function.
Although so far these finding have been found in animal studies, they may indicate what the results will look like in humans. In fact, humans suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency show lover levels of CoQ10 in their spinal fluid, which may be indicative of significant oxidative stress effecting their brains.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may help prevent and treat the symptoms of such mental disorders as bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. These specific mental disorders are associated with increased levels of brain oxidative stress levels and mitochondrial dysfunction, lowering the levels of naturally occurring CoQ10.
Therefore, people suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency don’t respond as well to prescribed antidepressant medication. By taking a CoQ10 supplement, these medications may be more effective and help reverse the symptoms of these often debilitating mental disorders.
One study found that people suffering from bipolar disorder experienced a significant reduction in symptoms once they started taking 1200 mgs of CoQ10 a day. Some antidepressants actually decrease the levels of CoQ10, so people taking these medications may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement.
Migraines are quite common, affecting over 10 million people in the United States every year. Over three million people suffer from more than one migraine headache a month, which can affect the quality of their lives and even their jobs.
Although the chain of events leading to a migraine headache are fuzzy, it is believed that low CoQ10 levels may share some responsibility in creating this debilitating condition. Many people have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps maintain their migraine headaches, decreasing the frequency of them. CoQ10 supplements also help maintain the symptoms associated with migraines such as nausea.
CoQ10 supplements are a major component in maintain the health of your heart. People with a family history of heart disease and high blood pressure may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement. Maintaining healthy levels of CoQ10 keep your heart running like a well-oiled machine—improving the overall health of your cardiovascular system.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement will help regulate your blood pressure, improve the functioning diastolic function of your heart, and reduces the likelihood of developing heart disease. Taking a CoQ10 supplement not only helps those already suffering from cardiovascular problems, but works as a great preventative measure.
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

srijeda, 19. travnja 2017.


‘A typical family spends nearly $2,000 per year on their home energy bills. Much of that money, however, is wasted through leaky windows or ducts, old appliances, or inefficient heating and cooling systems. The CCRES Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Savings Projects offer easy, step-by-step instructions to home energy efficiency improvements that will save you energy and money’. – Zeljko Serdar

Installing continuous air and thermal barriers between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned spaces above can save energy and money, improve comfort, and safeguard indoor air quality. Your garage may be a source of multiple pollutants, including dangerous carbon monoxide from car exhaust. In addition to careful air sealing and insulating, never leave your car engine running with the garage door closed and store paints, solvents, and other chemicals in tightly sealed containers.

Before insulating the floor between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned space above, take the time to:
  • Carefully air seal all gaps between the garage and the conditioned space above and the garage and the outdoors (the rim/band joist, for example)
  • Calculate the amount and determine the R-value of the insulation you will need
  • Gather all required tools and materials.
Choose materials that don’t require specialized equipment or tools to install.
  • Blanket insulation
  • Wire fasteners
  • Tape measure
  • Sharp utility knife
  • Caulk and foam sealant
  • Caulk gun
  • Stepladder
  • Straightedge
  • Respirator or dust mask
  • Eye protection
  • Protective clothing, including long-sleeved shirt, long pants, closed shoes, and gloves.


  • Double-check your insulation
    1.) Double-check your insulation
    Before opening the packages, verify that the insulation material is the correct width and R-value.
  • Seal air gaps
    2.) Seal air gaps
    Before insulating, carefully air seal gaps in the floor between the garage and the conditioned space as well as the garage and the outdoors (rim/band joists, for example). Use caulk for gaps smaller then ¼ inch and foam for gaps ¼ inch to 3 inches. In addition to improving energy efficiency, air sealing also helps keep exhaust fumes and other pollutants out of the conditioned space.
  • Fit insulation between joists
    3.) Fit insulation between joists
    Ensure insulation extends to the outside edge of each joist bay and is in contact with blocking or rim/band joist and the subfloor above. When using kraft-faced batts, install kraft facing against the conditioned side of the cavity. The kraft facing creates a vapor retarder that prevents trapped moisture from reducing the insulation’s effectiveness.
  • Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    4.) Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    Ensure ends of insulation are butted snugly together and in full contact with the subfloor of the conditioned space above.
  • Fasten the insulation in place
    5.) Fasten the insulation in place
    Use wire fasteners to support the insulation so that it is in full contact with the subfloor but not compressed.
    CCRES DIY TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources ( CCRES )

Renewable Energy Croatia 2012

srijeda, 25. siječnja 2017.



Projekt CCRES GINKGO oformio je Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)  s ciljem da se poduzimanjem niza poduzetničkih pothvata stvore preduvjeti za uspjeh realizacije pilot projekta podizanja nasada ginkga u Županiji Ličko-senjskoj u razdoblju od 2016. do 2020. godine. Ginkgo i proizvodi od ginkga veoma su traženi proizvodi u farmaceutskoj industriji, industriji ljepote, te u kulinarstvu, međutim potpuno nepoznat hrvatskim poljoprivrednicima i poduzetnicima.

GINKGO‬ BILOBA je prekrasno, neobično i nadasve dugovječno drvo koje na Zemlji živi već 200 milijuna godina. Arheološki dokazi ukazuju da je drvo ginkga postojalo još u doba dinosaurusa, a isti fosilni ostaci ukazuju kako se tijekom svih tih godina pa sve do danas, u botaničkom smislu, nije značajno promijenilo zbog čega se naziva još i živim fosilom. Ono što ginkga također čini neobičnim je što u biljnom kraljevstvu nema bliskih rođaka, već se klasificira u posebnu diviziju Ginkgophyta.
Gingko biloba smatra se simbolom otpornosti na promjene i čuvarom tajni dalekosežne gotovo nemjerljive prošlosti, no ono što ga čini toliko cijenjenim su i njegova medicinska svojstva. Porijeklom je iz Kine, a u Europu je stigao u prvoj polovici 18.stoljeća. U Kineskoj tradicinalnoj medicini prisutan je tisućama godina, a dolaskom na zapad vrlo brzo je prihvaćen i postao cijenjena medicinska biljka.
Dijelovi biljke koji se koriste u ljekovite svrhe i koji sadrže brojne biološki aktivne sastojke su listovi i sjemenke. Listovi sadrže kompleksnu mješavinu od 40 različitih flavonoida koji se najčešće standardiziraju na 22-27% flavonoid glikozida (ginko flavon glikozidi) i 6-7% terpena (ginkolidi i bilobalidi).
Istraživanja pokazuju kako ginkgo može blagotvorno djelovati kod stanja poput demencije, oslabljenih kognitivnih funkcija uslijed starosti, problema s cirkulacijom i kardiovaskularnih oboljenja poput periferne arterijske bolesti.

Projekt CCRES GINKGO vode stručnjaci s dugogodišnjim iskustvom u agronomiji, agrotehnici, kemiji, rasadničkoj i plantažerskoj proizvodnji ljekovita bilja, farmaciji, kozmetici, ekonomiji, marketingu i poduzetništvu. Projekt CCRES GINKGO djeluje na način da prati buduće proizvođače ginkga od njihove ideje za podizanjem nasada, preko održavanja nasada, profilacije ginkgo proizvoda do konačnog plasmana proizvoda na domaćem i stranom tržištu te na principima savjetovanja, suradništva i ugovornih odnosa.

Temeljni zadatci projekta su osigurati primjenu optimalnih tehnika podizanja i održavanja pilot nasada, pronaći kroz pilot projekt najbolji kultivar za naše podneblje između ginkgo biloba Beijing Gold, Fastigiata, Mariken, Variegata, odrediti optimalnu eksploataciju ploda i otkup tržišnih viškova.
Projekt promovira ekološku i organsku proizvodnju ginkga, stoga se idealno uklapa u regiju koja želi svoju kompletnu poljoprivredu bazirati na organskoj proizvodnji i ekološkim načelima.
Pokusni nasad je na 1250m2 poljoprivrednog zemljišta. Projekt CCRES GINKGO planira pod stalne nasade podignuti oko 300 hektara ginkga.
Prve dvije godine kod podizanja pilot nasada traže se više angažiranosti i njega pilot nasada, dok za preostali 100 godišnji i veći vijek eksploatacije ostaje samo berba ginkgo lista i sjemena.

Dobrobiti projekta prelaze okvire Županije Ličko-senjske, strukovnog udruženja HCOIE, te budućih kooperanata, jer otvara nova radna mjesta s perspektivom dugoročnog razvoja, kultivira poljoprivredno zemljište koje je velikim dijelom zapušteno te obogaćuje turističku ponudu regije jedinstvenim turističkim sadržajima.

Željko Serdar
Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

Are you concerned about #brain #health? Or, of one day not recognizing your closest #friend? If so, or if you care about friends and family members dealing with poor brain #function, don’t miss this. CCRES #GINKGO. The #Alzheimer’s and #Dementia. Brain disorders, including memory loss, are fast becoming the single biggest health problem in the world.
Did you know?
Every 3 seconds someone gets diagnosed with Alzheimer’s or dementia
Dementia starts in the brain 30 to 50 years before #symptoms appear
Alzheimer’s disease is the 6th leading cause of death
The average burden on families dealing with late-stage dementia is $300,000
46+ million people are losing their minds (this will double every 20 years)
The “silent epidemic” of early-onset dementia is on the rise

#ZeljkoSerdar #GinkgoBiloba #GrowYourFood #CCRES #HCOIE #RenewableEnergy