srijeda, 15. siječnja 2020.

PM2.5 atmospheric particulate matter (PM)

What is PM2.5 and Why You Should Care

PM2.5 readings are often included in air quality reports from environmental authorities and companies. Find out what they mean and why you should monitor their levels.

PM2.5 refers to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3% the diameter of a human hair.
Commonly written as PM2.5, particles in this category are so small that they can only be detected with an electron microscope. They are even smaller than their counterparts PM10, which are particles that are 10 micrometres or less, and are also called fine particles.

Where Do PM2.5 Come From

How Big is Particulate Matter 2.5
Fine particles can come from various sources. They include power plants, motor vehicles, airplanes, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, volcanic eruptions and dust storms.
Some are emitted directly into the air, while others are formed when gases and particles interact with one another in the atmosphere.
For instance, gaseous sulfur dioxide emitted from power plants reacts with oxygen and water droplets in the air to form sulfuric acid as a secondary particle.

Why Are PM2.5 Dangerous

What is PM2.5
Since they are so small and light, fine particles tend to stay longer in the air than heavier particles. This increases the chances of humans and animals inhaling them into the bodies. Owing to their minute size, particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers are able to bypass the nose and throat and penetrate deep into the lungs and some may even enter the circulatory system.
Studies have found a close link between exposure to fine particles and premature death from heart and lung disease. Fine particles are also known to trigger or worsen chronic disease such as asthma, heart attack, bronchitis and other respiratory problems.
A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may lead to plaque deposits in arteries, causing vascular inflammation and a hardening of the arteries which can eventually lead to heart attack and stroke. Scientists in the study estimated that for every 10 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3) increase in fine particulate air pollution, there is an associated 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respectively.
The American Heart Association has also warned about the impact of PM2.5 on heart health and mortality:
“Exposure to PM <2 .5="" diameter="" in="" m="" span="" style="border: 0px; bottom: -0.25em; font-size: 12.0005px; line-height: 0; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline;">2.5
 over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years.”
An association between mothers’ exposure to fine particles and birth defects has also been established by several reports.
Children, older adults and those who are suffering from lung and/or heart disease are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of fine particles in the air and should take special precautions when ambient PM2.5 crosses unhealthy levels.

How to Read PM2.5 Readings

Due to the many adverse effects fine particles can inflict on a large number of people, PM2.5 is one of the major pollutants closely monitored by health authorities around the world. You will most likely come across a dedicated column for PM2.5 alongside the Air Quality Index (AQI), Pollutants Standards Index (PSI) or the air quality standards adopted by your country.
On a very clear and non-hazy day, the PM2.5 concentration can be as low as 5 μg/m3 or below. The 24-hour concentration of PM2.5 is considered unhealthy when it rises above 35.4 μg/m3.
Why 24-hour and not a shorter duration when evaluating the health impact of fine particles? This is because the potential damage caused by air pollutants depends not just on the concentration, but also on the duration of exposure. The longer you are exposed to PM2.5, the higher the risk of developing adverse effects caused by the exposure. That’s why a 24-hour measurement is a better reflection of the health effects of fine particles than say a three-hour reading.
The table below will give you a sense of what levels of PM2.5 are harmful and the appropriate precautions you need to take. It is based on the air quality standards for particle pollution published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

24-Hour PM2.5 Levels (μg/m3)

Air Quality Index
PM2.5 Health Effects
Precautionary Actions
0 to 12.0
0 to 50
Little to no risk.None.
12.1 to 35.4
51 to 100
Unusually sensitive individuals may experience respiratory symptoms.Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.
35.5 to 55.4
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
101 to 150
Increasing likelihood of respiratory symptoms in sensitive individuals, aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should limit prolonged exertion.
55.5 to 150.4
151 to 200
Increased aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; increased respiratory effects in general population.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should avoid prolonged exertion; everyone else should limit prolonged exertion.
150.5 to 250.4
Very Unhealthy
201 to 300
Significant aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; significant increase in respiratory effects in general population.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should avoid any outdoor activity; everyone else should avoid prolonged exertion.
250.5 to 500.4
301 to 500
Serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; serious risk of respiratory effects in general population.Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should remain indoors.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

How to Protect Yourself Against PM2.5

When the amount of PM2.5 is at unhealthy level, take these steps to reduce exposure and protect your health:
  • Stay indoor and close all windows and openings that allow polluted air to enter, when possible.
  • Turn on an air purifier that is equipped with a HEPA filter. Only a HEPA filter can effectively remove fine particles from the air.
  • Most air filters in air conditioners are not HEPA filters as the latter will reduce air intake and would require the motor to work harder to push / pull air through. But an air conditioner is still helpful when fresh air intake is limited as it helps to circulate air and cool down (or warm up) room temperature.
  • When most or all windows are closed, do not burn candle, incense or operate devices that emit smoke or gas to prevent harmful particles and gas (such as carbon monoxide) from building up.
  • If you are a road warrior who must drive in all weather conditions, get a real air purifier for your car that comes with at least HEPA and activated carbon filters. A normal car filter can’t even remove traffic exhaust properly, let alone microscopic particles.
  • If the air pollution is expected to last for many days, consider moving to an unaffected location.
  • Boost your body’s resistance against PM2.5 by increasing your intake of these nutrients.
  • If you must go outdoor, make it short and quick, and wear a N95 or higher face mask.

utorak, 14. siječnja 2020.

CCRES Haematococcus pluvialis

Haematococcus pluvialis, from which natural astaxanthin is derived, is not easy to grow. It required a pH neutral environment and requires specialized knowledge and techniques to keep it free of contamination by unwanted algae, fungi and protozoa. Basically, there are two ways to grow astaxanthin in a closed or open system.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM, uses both.
It begins with Haematococcus growing in closed culture systems. After five to seven days, the algae is transported to giant open culture ponds for a reddening cycle. Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae gradually turn from green to red as they accumulate astaxanthin. When the algae is sufficiently infused with astaxanthin, the CCRES company team harvests, washes and dries the algae, then extracts the dried biomass.

part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

utorak, 22. listopada 2019.


Agroforestry, as a practice of integrating woody vegetation with crop and animal
 systems, benefits agriculture, forestry and related stakeholders with a 
sustainable land management, with multiple ecological and economic 
interactions. As such, agroforestry systems can be integrated with a set 
of practices to produce biological resources and sustainable methods of
 food, wood, and fiber production and provide a wide range of ecosystem
 services, such as carbon sequestration, water regulation and habitat
 provision for biodiversity and landscape amelioration. While, at local scale,
 it can benefit farmers, landowners and nature conservation efforts, at 
larger scale, it can help the European Union to accelerate the deployment 
of a sustainable European bioeconomy towards the 2030 Agenda and
 its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as objectives for 
the Paris Agreement. However, this requires research proposals and 
results tested with silvoarable and silvopastoral agroforestry systems
 designed mixed with agricultural and forestry practices to demonstrate
 their management, production and profitability. Such knowledge should
 then benefit and reach end-users to facilitate the correct implementation
 of optimal and beneficial practices within a European bioeconomy 
development context.

Agroforestry, ecosystem services, landscape and 

rural development

  • Climate change (adaptation and mitigation)
Agroforestry is a diversified set of agricultural production systems that
 integrate trees in the agricultural landscape, which is often regarded as 
a strategy for both adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The
 inclusion of trees in agroforestry systems has a strong significance
 for carbon sequestration and therefore is an important and often 
underestimated contribution to climate change mitigation. Agroforestry
 can also support production in rural areas with improved resilience
 to climate variability as well as climate change, through intensification,
 diversification and buffering of farming systems. This session foresees 
positive outcomes of agroforestry from case studies or dynamic modelling
 on mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

  • Enhancing ecosystem services provision by agroforestry systems
Agroforestry systems provide a broad number of regulating and
 supporting ecosystem services, ranging from biogeochemical cycling,
 through maintenance of soil fertility and carbon storage, to watershed
 protection and biodiversity. However, as emphasized by several researchers
, current understanding of agroforestry systems functioning and the best 
strategies to enhance the provision of multiple ecosystem services
 require deeper understanding. This session will examine the relationships 
between different ecosystem services as well as the management strategies 
to favor their provision in different agroforestry systems. Cases of Payment 
for Environmental Services (PES) would be encouraged.

  • Agroforestry, biodiversity, and wildlife management
Among several ecosystem services, agroforestry increases biomass, habitat 
and landscape connectivity, with potential to maintain higher levels of 
biodiversity in comparison to crop or pasture systems. Thus, spreading 
of different agroforestry ecosystems may be a viable complementary land
 use strategy for biodiversity conservation through small and diversified
 farms. The session defines the relevance of agroforestry systems for
 biodiversity conservation and enhancement, with general discussions
 and specific outcomes from case studies on positive relationships 
between plant/tree diversity and biodiversity — driven by either niche 
complementarity or the greater likelihood of including functionally-important
 species in more diverse assemblages.

  • Agroforestry and the landscape
This session focuses on options for a sustainable landscape development 
and management across spatial and temporal scales. It aims to highlight
 opportunities and synergies for: agricultural growth shaped through
 biodiversity and ecosystem conservation efforts; securing the full range
 of goods and services through natural resource management; providing
 new directions for meeting the production with sustainable development 
goals. Agroforestry systems and practices promise to play a major role 
in this framework. Session topics will include the analysis of agroforestry
 systems drivers, processes, and social-ecological impacts at landscape 
scales; the role of agroforestry in the landscape integrated management;
 the role in human health, limitations and knowledge gaps, as well as 
critical issues in local and regional planning through examples and case studies.

Agroforestry and policy for sustainable 


  • Agroforestry, quality food products and certification
The inextricable linkages between water, food, and other resources are
 pivotal in a fast changing world, since their demand is increasingly driven
 by economic growth, rising population, urbanization, and climate change.
 Sustainable agroforestry practices are often considered as a way to enhance
 food security, taking into account the often neglected social issues. 
However, much research is still needed to assess how agroforestry can
 contribute to food security, especially in the face of socio-economic and 
climate changes. More knowledge is needed on the relationship between
 agroforestry practices and food quality, especially as regard to the presence 
of bioactive substances and the nutritional characteristics of food. 
Furthermore, a credible certification on sustainable products is expected
 through voluntary market tools to demonstrate organic or good agriculture 
practices for food and sustainability for forest-based products. This session 
invites studies reporting advances in understanding the potential of
 agroforestry to contribute to food quality, health and security, while
 preserving and strengthening the environmental resources, and supporting
 the development of innovative certification and labelling schemes for a
 profitable and sustainable agroforestry.

  • Policy
A set of recommendations and changes of local, regional, national and 
international policies such as, the current and the next Common Agricultural 
Policy (CAP), are crucial to facilitate rural development. Farmers in the 
European Union receive support through several measures within the CAP
, including direct payments to farmers (Pillar I) and payments related to rural 
development (Pillar II). Policies should also recognize the importance of 
certification to grant an important role of agroforestry products to enhance
 sustainable production, and support local rural communities with activities
 fostering landscape preservation. This session aims to assess the existing
 policy framework, and highlight the required changes and adaptations that
 can facilitate widespread transition to eco-intensive farming (including 
agroforestry practices) and contribute to support bioeconomy.

Agroforestry systems and innovations

  • Agroforestry and wildfire prevention
Fire frequency and fire-prone areas have increased in Southern Europe, especially
 in the Mediterranean Basin, because of recent changes in land use socio-economic 
and fire-policy factors, including increased wildland-rural-urban interface due
 to urban sprawl. Land abandonment, especially in mountainous regions, led to
 shrubland encroachment, thus, in turn, contributing to increase fuel loading and
 fire risk. Land management practices, particularly agroforestry, can
 contribute to reducing wildfire risk through the reduction of fuel
 loads/flammability and altering fuel continuity at the landscape level, while
 revitalising abandoned areas, integrating fire prevention principles, and
 offering new job possibilities. Contributions are welcome addressing the
 influence and the opportunity of agroforestry activities to better understand and
 manage wildfire risk, with an eye on sustainability and ecosystem service provision.

  • Agroforestry innovations toward innovative agroforestry systems
To optimize a functional integration of multiple roles to support agroforestry, a
 fundamental understanding of agroforestry innovations is required in order to
 ensure long-term land-use decisions. As alternative solutions and agroforestry
 components are tested and combined, functionally and structurally, new
 agroforestry systems are potentially becoming available and brought under the
 attention as new solutions to exploit new complementarities of agroforestry
 components and marketing alternatives. The session describes knowledge and
 marketing of agroforestry innovations that are fundamental for the design of
 solutions that can improve intensification of agricultural production, enhance
 complementarity of multiple biotic factors, grow better food, cut waste and 
improve financial margins and profitability.
To this end, this session emphasizes innovative agroforestry systems, tested
 through scientific case study development and/or adoption by rural communities,
 and highlights their potential and weakness to become useful and
 widespread agroforestry options.

  • Managing Mediterranean agro-silvopastoral systems
Traditional agroforestry systems are undergoing rapid transformation because 
of to socio-economic and climate changes. If properly designed and managed,
 agroforestry systems in Mediterranean areas can contribute to multiple goos
 and jobs related to agro-silvopastoral systems, including wood products, livestock
 husbandry, pastures and crops, while addressing climate-change adaptatin 
and mitigation issues. Yet, emerging research is moving fast from climate-smat
 agriculture to climate-smart agroforestry, providing studies and solutions 
for shifting towards management practices economically and environmentally
 sustainable. Abstracts in this session are expected to address sustainable 
economic and ecological management of agro-silvopastoral systems in a context
 of global change.

Agroforestry, education, dissemination

  • Education, information sharing, and awareness raising in agroforestry
Education and dissemination are key elements to promote good practices
 that allow widespread implementation and adoption by farmers of successful 
agroforestry practices. Moreover, social engagement is an extremely important 
factor for the maintenance and success of agroforestry activities. This session
 will highlight the experiences and perceptions of European farmers, to identify
 the opportunities and the key barriers to agroforestry and, therefore, to 
understand the acceptance or refusal of agroforestry by farmers. This session
 will also show and describe potential practices that can help to disseminate,
 through improved solution/platform (ICT) providing farmers with information
 related to better agroforestry practices, such as crop/tree choice, spacing 
and market decisions. This includes experiences in developing an agroforestry
 system and describing voids to be filled when applying them, the description of
 need for technical assistance to small farmers, integrating research,
 experimentation and application. The session aims also at looking into initiatives
 that contribute to public awareness raising, as a crucial factor for increasing the 
demand of products obtained by agroforestry practices.

  • Agroforestry and rural tourism
Agroforestry offers great potential to increase biodiversity, landscape values
 and several ecosystem functions that can facilitate the fruition of natural 
landscape by human activities. Agroforestry can have an important role in
 ecotourism development and in keeping the wildlife component of
 eco-destinations alive and active, by preserving food sources and even nesting 
sites, growing high value food for tourists, restoration of degraded landscapes 
aesthetically attractive for tourism. This session intends to describe opportunities
 through rural tourism to establish economic activities that can be a funnel to 
financially support  agroforestry practices, while benefiting landscape.

ponedjeljak, 19. kolovoza 2019.

Stablo godine (Tree of The Year)

Join the most popular environmental contest to enhance your CSR and Environmental Policy!

We are searching for trees with the most interesting storie


Za titulu Hrvatsko stablo 2019. godine natječe se šest kandidata:  Hrast lužnjak (Quercus robur L.) iz prašume Prašnik (Stara Gradiška, Brodsko-posavska županija); Ginko (Ginkgo biloba L.) iz Daruvara (Bjelovarsko-bilogorska županija); Hrast kitnjak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) iz Vojakovačkog Osijeka (Koprivničko-križevačka županija); Hrast lužnjak (Quercus robur L.) iz park-šume Maksimir (Grad Zagreb); Velelisna lipa (Tilia grandifolia Ehrh.) iz Visokog (Varaždinska županija) te Bijela murva (Morus alba L.) iz Brtonigle (Istarska županija).

Natjecanje Stablo godine (Tree of The Year) je natjecanje koje naglašava značaj starih stabla u prirodnoj i kulturnoj baštini Europe, koja zaslužuju našu brigu i zaštitu. Inspirirano jepopularnim festivalom Stabla godine koji već godinama u Češkoj Republici organizira udruga za zaštitu okoliša Nadace Partnerství. Kroz natjecanje i promocijom priča o pojedinim stablima značajnim za život lokalne zajednice cilj natjecanja je promocija bioraznolikosti i prirodnih bogatstava diljem Europske unije kako bi se podigla svijest javnosti o potrebi zaštite i očuvanja prirode, kao i važnosti prirodnih vrijednosti za život čovjeka i opstanak čovječanstva. Natjecanje Stablo godinenastoji promicati stabla i njihove priče kao prirodne spomenike na isti način na koji UNESCO promiče svjetsku baštinu.

Od 2011. godine natjecanje se održava svake godine u pojedinim državama diljem Europe. Do 2017. godine u projektu je sudjelovalo sedamnaest europskih zemalja (Njemačka, Češka, Španjolska, Francuska, Belgija, Škotska, Engleska, Wales, Bugarska, Litva, Irska, Sjeverna Irska, Engleska, Slovačka, Mađarska, Poljska, Estonija), a 2017. natjecanju sepriključila se i Republika Hrvatska prihvaćanjem kandidature Javne ustanove za upravljanje zaštićenim diejlovima prirode Dubrovačko-neretvanske županije kao nacionalnog koordinatora ispred Republike Hrvatske.Osim što je Javna ustanova za upravljanje zaštićenim dijelovima prirode Dubrovačko-neretvanske županije izabrana za nacionalnog koordinatora natjecanja Europsko stablo godine, organizator je nacionalnog natjecanja Hrvatsko stablo godine. Partneri u projektu Stablo godine Javnoj ustanovi za upravljanje zaštićenim dijelovima prirode Dubrovačko-neretvanske županije su Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hrvatske šume d.o.o. te Hrvatsko agrometeorološko društvo.

Natjecanje Stablo godineima svoju proceduru i jasno propisana pravila koja nacionalni kordinator mora ispuniti i slijediti da bi se pojedina država mogla priključiti i sudjelovati u natjecanju. Natjecanje Stablo godine sastoji se od nacionalnog natjecanja i europskog natjecanja. Pobjednika nacionalnog natjecanja potrebno je proglasiti najkasnije do kraja listopada tekuće godine te gakao pobjednika nacionalnog natjecanja kandidirati ispred pojedine države za europsko natjecanje do 04. studenog tekuće godine. Zatim slijedi natjecanje europsko stablo godine sačinjeno od pobjednika nacionalnih natjecanja.

Natjecanje Europsko stablo godine je finale natjecanja Stablo godine sastavljeno od pobjednika nacionalnih natjecanja. Natjecanje naglašava važnost pružanja usluga stabla u ekosustavu. Ne fokusira se na ljepoti, veličini ili dobi pojedinog stabla, već je naglasak na priči o stablu te njegovoj povezanosti s ljudima i lokalnom zajednicom. Traže se stabla koja su postala dio šire zajednice, stabla ukorijenjena u život i rad ljudi. Javno glasovanje za europsko stablo godine traje od 01. veljače do 28. veljače tekuće godine. Pobjednik natjecanja Europsko stablo godine proglašava se na Svjetski dan šuma 21. ožujka 2018. godine u Bruxelles-u s čime završava natjecanje Stablo godine (Tree of The Year) za tekuću godinu.

Organizatori natjecanja su Environmental Partnership Association, the European Landowners Organisation i TeraPark u suradnji s Europskom komisijom, pod nadležnosti povjerenika Europske komisije za okoliš, pomorstvo i ribarstvo g. Karmenu Vella.
Svrha Europskog stabla godine je istaknuti značaj starih stabala u prirodnoj i kulturnoj baštini. Europsko stablo godine ne fokusira se na ljepoti, veličini ili dobi pojedinog stabla, već je naglasak na priči o stablu i njegovoj povezanosti s ljudima. U okviru natjecanja traže se stabla koja su postala dio šire zajednice.
Svake godine na natjecanju sudjeluje više stotina tisuća ljudi. Broj uključenih država povećava se iz godine u godinu. Od prvog europskog natjecanja broj država koje su sudjelovale u natjecanju porastao je sa 5 na 17 država.

Republika Hrvatska prvi puta je sudjelovala na natjecanju Europsko stablo 2018. godine godine i zauzela je 7. mjesto kandidaturom Azijske platane Trstenom (Platanus orientalis L.) na trgu, zaštićenog spomenika parkovne arhitekture. Ove godine Republiku Hrvatsku na natjecanju Europsko stablo 2019. godine je prestavljala Gupčeva lipa, zaštićeni spomenik prirode koja je zauzela 11. mjesto.
Važno je sudjelovati u natjecanju kako bi se promovirala bogata i raznolika priroda Republike Hrvatske, a posebno ona zaštićena, najvrijedniji resurs kojim Republika Hrvatska raspolaže.
Imamo se čime dičiti i ponositi, te pokazati Europi sve vrednote kojima obilujemo.
Natjecanje Hrvatsko stablo godine je nacionalno natjecanje koje se održava u Republici Hrvatskoj. Od 2017. godine Javna ustanova za upravljanje zaštićenim dijelovima prirode Dubrovačko-neretvanske županije, nositelj imena Hrvatsko stablo godine, organizira i provodi natjecanje u partnerstvu s Šumarskim fakultetom Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hrvatskim šumama d.o.o. i Hrvatskim agrometeorološkim društvom.
Natjecanjeima pet faza: nominacijskiproces, odabirfinalista, procesjavnogglasovanja, proglašenjepobjednikanatjecanjatezavršnufazuskrbizapobjedničkostablotesimboličnusadnjusta bala.
Natjecanjem i promocijom priča o pojedinim stablima značajnim za život lokalne zajednice želi se podignuti svijest javnosti o značenju i važnosti očuvanja bioraznolikosti za život čovjeka i opstanak čovječanstva. Također, natjecanjem se nastoji privući stanovništvo i potaknuti lokalne zajednice da se uključe u zaštitu i očuvanje prirodne baštine. Na taj se način promoviraju stabla kao bitan element našega kulturnog i prirodnog bogatstva, te privlači pozornost javnosti i medija na zaštitu i očuvanje prirodnih vrijednosti i bioraznolikosti značajnih za život čovjeka i opstanak čovječanstva.

U tijeku je nacionalno natjecanje Hrvatsko stablo 2019. godine, a za titulu Hrvatsko stablo 2019. godine natječe se šest kandidata: Hrast lužnjak (Quercus robur L.) iz prašume Prašnik (Stara Gradiška, Brodsko-posavska županija); Ginko (Ginkgo biloba L.) iz Daruvara (Bjelovarsko-bilogorska županija); Hrast kitnjak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) iz Vojakovačkog Osijeka (Koprivničko-križevačka županija); Hrast lužnjak (Quercus robur L.) iz park-šume Maksimir (Grad Zagreb); Velelisna lipa (Tilia grandifolia Ehrh.) iz Visokog (Varaždinska županija) te Bijela murva (Morus alba L.) iz Brtonigle (Istarska županija).

Natjecanje je započelo 01. kolovoza 2019. godine u 00:00h i trajat će do 15. rujna 2019. godine do 00:00h. Pobjednik natjecanja proglasit će se na svečanoj ceremoniji 22. listopada 2019. godine na Šumarskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Pobjednika nacionalnog natjecanja Javna ustanova za upravljanje zaštićenim dijelovima prirode Dubrovačko- neretvanske županije, u ime Republike Hrvatske, kandidirati će na finale natjecanja Europsko stablo 2020. Godine, a što je sukladno pravilima natjecanja potrebno do 04. studenog 2019. godine.

Upute za glasovanje:

 Stranici za glasovanje se pristupa direktno putem poveznice - https://zastita-prirode-đer stranici se može pristupiti putem službene stranice Javne ustanove za upravljanje zaštićenim dijelovima prirode Dubrovačko-neretvanske županije (

Glasati se može za samo jednog kandidata. Nakon odabira željenog kandidata
potvrdite svoj glas klikom na internet stranici.

Glasati semože samo jednom sistog računaIa, prijenosnog računala i/iIimobitela.

Glasanje traje od 01. kolovoza 2019. godine u 00:00h i do 15. rujna 2019. godine do 00:00h.


ponedjeljak, 22. srpnja 2019.

Energy Consumption 2050

Energy Consumption 2050

Nearly half the world’s electricity will come from renewable energy by 2050 as costs of wind, solar and battery storage continue to plummet. That titanic shift over the next three decades will come as electricity demand increases 62% and investors pump $13.3 trillion into new projects. 

The move away from fossil fuel has sweeping implications for energy markets and the fight to stave off climate change. Wind, solar and batteries are poised to enable the power sector to meet its share of emission cuts required under the Paris climate agreement, at least until 2030.
But after that, nations will need other technologies to make deeper cuts at a reasonable cost.
By 2050, solar and wind will supply almost 50% of the world’s electricity, with hydro, nuclear and other renewable energy resources providing another 21%. Coal will be the biggest loser in the power sector, with its share of global generation plunging from 37% today to 12% in 2050. Many nations can cut power-sector emissions through 2030 in line with goals set in Paris to limit the increase in world temperatures to 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit). And they can do that without additional subsidies for solar and wind. Since 2010, the cost of wind power has dropped by 49%, and solar has plummeted 85%. That makes them cheaper than new coal or gas plants in two-thirds of the world. Battery storage costs, meanwhile, have dropped 85% since 2010. If the world is to completely eliminate greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, technologies including carbon capture and storage, hydrogen power and solar thermal plants will compete to provide about 13,000 terawatt hours of generation by 2050. That’s equivalent to about half of all electricity produced today. And even if every nation scrubs emissions from the power sector, there are still ample greenhouse gases from cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, heating systems and agriculture.

The rise in energy demand is essentially a story of economic and population growth. Primary energy consumption—which encompasses virtually all demand, right down to the losses of energy as it travels across transmission and distribution lines—has boomed in developing parts of the world, even as it leveled off, or even fell, in industrialized countries.

As a result, the global balance of energy demand has shifted dramatically since 1980. Back then, the U.S. consumed over a quarter of the world’s energy—more than any other country. Today, it’s China that uses the most. The U.S. is still a close second. Other large, emerging economies like India and Indonesia are consuming four, five, and in some cases, even six times the primary energy they did in 1980—most of it coming from fossil fuels spewing the carbon-dioxide emissions now threatening the earth’s climate. In other parts of the world, clean energy sources are taking off. Renewable, nuclear and other non-fossil-fuel sources made up more than 14% of the globe’s primary energy consumption in 2016. They make up an even larger share of its “final” energy use—demand after transformation and distribution losses—because fossil fuels lose more. The rise of cheap solar and wind power is helping slow the growth of carbon emissions globally—so is the decline in overall energy demand in developed nations. A recent McKinsey report projected that energy demand would plateau around 2030—thanks in large part to wealthy nations such as the U.S., Germany and Japan. Meanwhile, the number of countries that solely consume fossil fuels including coal and oil has dropped by about half to 17 since 1980, according to U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data.

The shift away from fossil fuels, however, has faced setbacks. Nuclear power plants, despite the zero-emissions electricity they produce, have fallen out of favor in some parts because of Japan’s Fukushima disaster in 2011. And while the use of renewables is growing, their adoption may not prove quick enough to ward off the worst effects of global warming. Even if the nearly 200 countries that signed the Paris climate accord were on track to meet their own emission goals, global temperatures would still climb more than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit)—a rise that scientists expect will be catastrophic to life on earth.

Every country has a different energy story: While energy consumption in most advanced economies has either stabilized or fallen in the past couple of decades, demand in many emerging markets has soared. The U.S. and China, the world’s two largest consumers of energy, are a case in point. China overtook the U.S. as the world’s largest energy consumer a decade ago. Cheap and dirty coal plants proliferated there, spewing so much soot that the sun was clouded out and cities were choking by the early 1990s. Within the past decade, the country has been working on a plan to curb its fossil-fuel pollution. One major part of that plan, the $36 billion Three Gorges dam, was completed in 2012, becoming the largest hydroelectric plant in the world at 22.5 gigawatts. The U.S., meanwhile, has seen its energy demand plateau. That’s even as its reliance on natural gas has grown rapidly thanks to a domestic fracking boom. U.S. monthly electricity generation from renewables surpassed coal for the first time in April 2019, according to the EIA.

In Europe, the U.K. and France are actually decreasing energy consumption. France became one of the smallest users of fossil fuels after the Arab oil embargo in the 1970s led to a rapid expansion of nuclear power. French utility EDF gets more of its electricity from emissions-free nuclear power than any other source and has committed to extending the life for most of its reactors even as others pull back in the wake of the Fukushima disaster. The consumption of once-dominant coal in the U.K. shrank to nearly zero in 2016, as the country plans to close all coal plants by 2025. The U.K. closed its last three deep mines in 2015, which led to a sharp drop in coal consumption for the country that launched the Industrial Revolution on the fossil fuel. The country has instead invested heavily in offshore wind farms. 
Japan’s consumption began falling around the turn of the century as efficiency gains and a shrinking population reduced the country’s needs, while Germany’s decline has been slower. Both countries were early proponents of nuclear power but are dismantling reactors because of safety concerns after a tsunami overwhelmed Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi plant in 2011. Germany, an early investor in clean energy, turned to renewables. Unlike Japan, Germany hasn’t seen a major increase in its share of fossil fuels as it shuts down its nuclear fleet ahead of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s 2022 deadline. But phasing out nuclear energy means that Germany’s carbon emissions have stayed steady, even as the country rapidly turns to renewables. 

Like China, India has seen breakneck development since 1980 and the accompanying surge in energy consumption that comes as tens of millions of its citizens join the country’s middle class. But unlike China, India has not invested as much in renewable energy as it’s developed. While a greater share of India’s total energy consumption came from non-fossil fuel sources in 1980 than its larger neighbor did, that share has actually dropped since 1980. Meanwhile, China’s share coming from nuclear and renewables has nearly quadrupled.
South Korea’s energy use also has grown rapidly. Because it must import most of its fuel supplies and has little land available for giant wind or solar farms, South Korea has embraced hydrogen fuel cell technologies to become the largest producer of fuel cell equipment. Energy mix and carbon footprint reveal a lot about a country’s natural resources. Take Iceland, which takes heat from the volcanoes that built the island nation and gets the rest of its electricity from hydroelectric dams. 
Others like Brazil, Paraguay, Bhutan, Croatia and Norway are also geographically blessed with enormous hydroelectric and renewable energy potential. That’s not so for arid regions such as the Middle East—Saudi Arabia generates most of its electricity from oil. 

The shift toward renewables has proven easier for some countries than others, but the economics of wind and solar are tipping the scales globally. The two resources are now the cheapest forms of energy in two-thirds of the world. The cost of solar has declined by 85% since 2010. As clean power sources get even cheaper, countries will have a greater incentive to transition and cut carbon emissions. Whether that comes in time to to prevent the worst effects of climate change remains to be seen.