Friday, February 14, 2020

The world number one in renewable energy



Europe has the ambition to be the world number one in renewable energy. To fulfil this objective it must lead the development of the next generation of renewable technologies, but also integrate the energy produced from renewable sources into the energy system in an efficient and cost-effective manner. To attain these goals, ambitious R&I targets have been set for 5 renewable technologies with great potential for cost-reductions, performance improvements and large-scale deployment worldwide – off-shore wind energy, the next generation of solar photovoltaics (PVs), ocean energy, concentrated solar power (CSP) and deep geothermal energy.

In 2018, renewable energy accounted for 21% of the total energy used for heating and cooling in the European Union (EU). This share has increased steadily since the beginning of the data collection in 2004, when the share was 12%. Increases in industry, services and households have all contributed to the growth in renewable energy used for heating and cooling.

Sweden stood out among EU Member States with almost two thirds (65%) of the energy used for heating and cooling in 2018 stemming from renewable sources. More than half of the energy used for heating and cooling came from renewable energy sources in Latvia (56%), Finland (55%) and Estonia (54%). My Croatia (37%).

In contrast, renewable sources contributed the least to heating and cooling in Ireland and the Netherlands (both 6%), Belgium (8%) and Luxembourg (9%).


Becoming the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050 is the greatest challenge and opportunity of our times. To achieve this, the European Commission presented the European Green Deal, the most ambitious package of measures that should enable European citizens and businesses to benefit from sustainable green transition. Measures accompanied with an initial roadmap of key policies range from ambitiously cutting emissions, to investing in cutting-edge research and innovation, to preserving Europe’s natural environment.

Supported by investments in green technologies, sustainable solutions and new businesses, the Green Deal can be a new EU growth strategy. Involvement and commitment of the public and of all stakeholders is crucial to its success.

Above all, the European Green Deal sets a path for a transition that is just and socially fair. It is designed in such a way as to leave no individual or region behind in the great transformation ahead.

https://europa.eu/!nP74Qm


Actions

Overview of the European Green Deal
Advantages for individuals, businesses and society
The role, influence and need for a strong EU voice on the world stage
Targeted support in the transition towards the green economy
A funding plan to become the first climate-neutral continent
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and 5G



Many people claims that Wuhan, China, the centre of the new coronavirus outbreak, was where 5G was first rolled out. It suggests that 5G has damaged peoples’ immune systems and so boosted the virulence of the common cold. The main implication of the claim—that 5G can impact immune systems—is totally unfounded. There is no evidence linking the new coronavirus to 5G.

It’s true that Wuhan does have some 5G coverage. 

The local government listed a number of venues with 5G coverage in August 2019. We can’t find evidence it was the very first city with 5G but we’ve seen reports saying Wuhan was one of several Chinese cities where early 5G trials took place. Another said Wuhan was “one of the first pilot cities of the 5G network in China”.

Claim

Wuhan is where 5G was rolled out first.

5G wrecks immune systems and that is why people in Wuhan are suffering with this illness.


Venues with 5G coverage in Wuhan now

Source: hubei.gov.cn 08/27/2019 15:08:10
With the debuts of 5G mobile phones, a growing number of consumers begin to concern about where they can have access to 5G service in Wuhan.
At present, the venues for the 7th CISM Military World Games, airport, railway station and major business circles, some universities have achieved 5G coverage, according to the three major communication operators, China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom in Wuhan on August 26. (hubei.gov.cn by Ruan Xinqi)
http://en.hubei.gov.cn/news/newslist/201908/t20190827_1409062.shtml


China completes third phase of national 5G trial program

Chinese vendors Huawei and ZTE as well as the country’s three state-owned carriers took part in the trials
China’s IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group said it has completed a third phase of non-standalone trials, Chinese press reported.

The tests were based on 3GPP’s Release 15 standards unveiled last year.

Tests in this phase included both indoor and outdoor trials, core network and base station functions. Huawei, ZTE and the China Information and Communication Technologies Group completed trials using the 3.5 GHz and 4.9 GHz frequency bands, according to the reports.

The IMT-2020 Promotion Group said that more than 20 companies participated in the third phase of China’s 5G trials, including Ericsson, Nokia Shanghai Bell, Samsung, Qualcomm, Intel and Rohde & Schwarz.

The group’s next step is to conduct interoperability tests on system and chip system terminals.

China’s 5G R&D tests started in 2016 and have involved three phases: key technologies testing, the verification of technology and solution and 5G system verification.

The IMT-2020 (5G) promotion group was jointly established in 2013 by the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission, and the Ministry of Science and Technology, based on the original IMT-Advanced Promotion Group. In China, it is the primary platform through which 5G research and international exchange and cooperation is conducted.

Operators participating in the IMT-2020 Promotion Group include China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom and Japanese telecoms operator NTT DoCoMo.

The IMT-2020 Promotion Group completed the initial phase of its trial program in 2016. That phase included testing wireless technologies including massive multiple-input-multiple-output, novel multiple access, new waveforms, advance coding, ultra-dense network implementations and high-frequency communications. The trial phase also included network slicing, edge computing and network function reconstruction. The second phase of the national 5G tests were fully completed during last year.

Earlier this year, the Chinese government had authorized carriers to test 5G technology in major cities across the country. Under this initiative, state-run telcos have been deploying 5G networks in 16 cities to trial the technology.

China Mobile, the world’s largest mobile operator in terms of subscribers, had plans to carry out external field test in the cities of Hangzhou, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Suzhou, and Wuhan and deploy more than 100 base stations in these locations. China Mobile also has said it would conduct 5G network application demonstrations in 12 cities including Beijing, Chengdu, and Shenzhen.

Last year, China Mobile announced plans to deploy more than 10,000 5G base stations by 2020. The telco expects to launch a pre-commercial 5G service this year.

China Unicom’s 5G trials plans center around 16 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guiyang, Chengdu, Shenzhen, Fuzhou, Zhengzhou, and Shenyang.

China Telecom has also said it plans to test 5G technology in six cities including Xiong’an, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Suzhou, Chengdu and Lanzhou.

https://www.rcrwireless.com/20181004/5g/china-completes-third-phase-national-5g-trial-program


Hubei sets up over 300 5G base station

WUHAN, May 27 (Xinhua) -- Central China's Hubei Province has built more than 300 5G base stations and achieved full 5G signal coverage in its prefecture-level cities, local telecom sources said.The China Mobile's Hubei branch said more than 300 5G base stations have been built since February 2018, and a dozen 5G experience centers have been completed in cities including Xiaogan, Yichang and Jingmen.In the experience centers, visitors can learn knowledge about 5G technology and are allowed to experience 5G networks and high-tech products such as VR glasses, robotic arms and robots. Visitors will also learn about the close connection of 5G products in their daily lives.Wuhan, capital of Hubei, is one of the first pilot cities of the 5G network in China. So far, 5G technology has been applied in various fields in the city, including intelligent education, intelligent medical treatment, driverless vehicles, intelligent tourism, smart transportation and intelligent enterprises.
In October 2019, China’s three state telecoms companies announced they would be rolling out phone services that use 5G, and that big cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hangzhou were already covered by the network.5G is the next generation of wireless network technology, following on from 4G. Like 4G, 3G and 2G before it, 5G mobile data is transmitted over radio waves—a small part of the whole electromagnetic spectrum (which includes microwaves, visible light and X-rays).These radio waves are non-ionising, (meaning they don’t damage the DNA inside cells), as X-rays, gamma rays and UV rays are able to do. 5G, although at slightly higher frequencies than previous networks, is still in this radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
BEIJING (Reuters) - China’s three state telecoms on Thursday announced the roll-out 5G mobile phone services, marking a key step in Beijing’s ambitions to become a technology superpower at a time when it remains locked in trade tensions with Washington.China Mobile’s, China Unicom and China Telecom’s said on their websites and online stores that 5G plans, which start from as low as 128 yuan a month, will be available from Friday, allowing Chinese consumers nationwide to use the ultra-fast mobile internet service.Beijing had originally said it would launch the ultra-fast mobile internet service, which promises to support new features such as autonomous driving, early next year. But it accelerated its plans as tensions with the United States, especially over its boycott of telecoms giant Huawei Technologies, heated up.
“China will have the largest commercial operating 5G network in the world on Friday, and the scale of its network and the price of its 5G services will have a pivotal impact throughout the supply chain,” Bernstein said in a report this week.Authorities have said that they plan to install over 50,000 5G base stations across 50 Chinese cities in the country by the end of this year, and that big cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou, are already covered by the 5G network.Chinese companies from Xiaomi to Huawei have also unveiled new products in anticipation of the 5G roll out, with Huawei saying that it anticipates to start seeing a revenue uplift from the sector next year.

As for the claim that the new coronavirus observed in Wuhan is the “normal cold” with boosted virulence—that is simply not the case. 
5G?
Conclusion
Wuhan was one of the first places with 5G trials, as well as several other large Chinese cities, like Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou but we don’t know if it was the first.These days 5G is blamed for everything, from cancer to bushfires, so it is not surprising that conspiracy theories that 5G caused, or helped spread coronavirus have been shared into the anti-5G groups.
Some people claimed Wuhan was where 5G was first rolled out, and 5G “wrecked immune systems and thereby boosted the virulency of the normal cold”. Wuhan was one of a few places where 5G was rolled out in China in 2020, along with other parts of the world. There is no evidence (yet) that 5G weakens immune systems or is harmful to humans. Novel coronavirus is probably with us beyond this season, beyond this year.


Monday, February 3, 2020

Bat-SARS-Like Coronavirus


Make no mistake: this disease is, in fact, a military biological weapon.






Two separate components of genetic sequencing from HIV-1, the virus which causes AIDS, were added to Bat-SARS-Like coronavirus in the laboratory, thereby allowing it to infect human lungs via the ACES2 receptors in our lungs, and to disrupt the human body ability to fight it off, by reducing human leukocytes.

The disease sequence from the original Bat coronavirus was uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the US National Library of Medicine, in the year 2018 by China's Institute of Military Medicine, Nanjing Command. That Bat-SARS-Like coronavirus was issued Reference ID: AVP 70833.1 by the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S. Library of Medicine.



The present outbreak of "novel Coronavirus" was uploaded to that same National Center for Biotechnology Information in January of this year by the Shanghai Public Heath Clinical Center and was issued Reference ID: QHD3418.1. Using the test facilities known as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) from the U.S. National Library of Medicine researchers have determined that the "virus envelope" of those two separate diseases, are 100% identical! We are currently witnessing a major epidemic caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019- nCoV). The evolution of 2019-nCoV remains elusive. We found 4 insertions in the spike glycoprotein (S) which are unique to the 2019-nCoV and are not present in other coronaviruses. Importantly, amino acid residues in all the 4 inserts have identity or similarity to those in the HIV-1 gp120 or HIV-1 Gag. 



Interestingly, despite the inserts being discontinuous on the primary amino acid sequence, 3D-modelling of the 2019-nCoV suggests that they converge to constitute the receptor binding site. The finding of 4 unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV, all of which have identity /similarity to amino acid residues in key structural proteins of HIV-1 is unlikely to be fortuitous in nature. There is no way in nature that the Bat coronavirus could fortuitously acquire the HIV genetic sequences, without causing a mutation of the Virus Envelope. The only way the virus envelope could obtain the HIV genetics and still remain 100% identical to the 2018 sample, is if the HIV genes were added in a laboratory.



So what the human race is now facing, is an accidentally-released military bio-weapon. The original Bat-SARS-Like Coronavirus was identified by China's People's Liberation Army, through the Institute of Military Medicine, Nanjiang Command in the year 2018. They uploaded the virus sequence and they were the sole entity in possession of the virus. Here we are, two years later, and the virus they had has been changed in a way that cannot occur in nature without mutating the virus envelope protein.

Remember this text and its publication date. 

Saturday, February 1, 2020

2019-nCoV



2019 Novel Coronavirus


The Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Chinese authorities identified the new coronavirus, which has resulted in thousands of confirmed cases in China, including cases outside Wuhan City. Additional cases have been identified in a growing number of other international locations, including the United States. There are ongoing investigations to learn more.

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. Early on, many of the patients in the outbreak in Wuhan, China reportedly had some link to a large seafood and animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. However, a growing number of patients reportedly have not had exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread is occurring. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people.

Much is unknown about how 2019-nCoV, a new coronavirus, spreads. Current knowledge is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS, SARS, and now with 2019-nCoV.

Most often, spread from person-to-person happens among close contacts (about 6 feet). Person-to-person spread is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, similar to how influenza and other respiratory pathogens spread. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. It’s currently unclear if a person can get 2019-nCoV by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes.

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus. However, as a reminder, CDC always recommends everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, including:

Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Stay home when you are sick.
Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

If you were in China in the last 14 days and feel sick with fever, cough, or difficulty breathing, you should:

Seek medical care right away. Before you go to a doctor’s office or emergency room, call ahead and tell them about your recent travel and your symptoms.
Avoid contact with others.
Not travel while sick.
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
Wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to avoid spreading the virus to others. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES


Saturday, January 25, 2020

Coronavirus (CoV) ends with 65 million deaths.

Slikovni rezultat za coronavirus


OMG do they know?!

Friday, October 18, 2019
8:45 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.
The Pierre hotel
New York, NY

Event 201 was a 3.5-hour pandemic tabletop exercise that simulated a series of dramatic, scenario-based facilitated discussions, confronting difficult, true-to-life dilemmas associated with response to a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible, pandemic. The next severe pandemic will not only cause great illness and loss of life but could also trigger major cascading economic and societal consequences that could contribute greatly to global impact and suffering. The Event 201 pandemic exercise, conducted on October 18, 2019, vividly demonstrated a number of these important gaps in pandemic preparedness as well as some of the elements of the solutions between the public and private sectors that will be needed to fill them. The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, World Economic Forum, and Bill & Melinda Gates.



The Event 201 scenario

Event 201 simulates an outbreak of a novel zoonotic coronavirus transmitted from bats to pigs to people that eventually becomes efficiently transmissible from person to person, leading to a severe pandemic. The pathogen and the disease it causes are modeled largely on SARS, but it is more transmissible in the community setting by people with mild symptoms.

The disease starts in pig farms in Brazil, quietly and slowly at first, but then it starts to spread more rapidly in healthcare settings. When it starts to spread efficiently from person to person in the low-income, densely packed neighborhoods of some of the megacities in South America, the epidemic explodes. It is first exported by air travel to Portugal, the United States, and China and then to many other countries. Although at first some countries are able to control it, it continues to spread and be reintroduced, and eventually no country can maintain control.

There is no possibility of a vaccine being available in the first year. There is a fictional antiviral drug that can help the sick but not significantly limit spread of the disease.

Since the whole human population is susceptible, during the initial months of the pandemic, the cumulative number of cases increases exponentially, doubling every week. And as the cases and deaths accumulate, the economic and societal consequences become increasingly severe.

The scenario ends at the 18-month point, with 65 million deaths. The pandemic is beginning to slow due to the decreasing number of susceptible people. The pandemic will continue at some rate until there is an effective vaccine or until 80-90 % of the global population has been exposed. From that point on, it is likely to be an endemic childhood disease.




Highlights Reel

Selected moments from the October 18th Event 201 Exercise (Length: ~12 minutes)

Videos of Event 201

These five segments include discussions among high-level leaders of global businesses, governments, policy and public health. (Length ~3 hours)

Segment 1 - Intro and Medical Countermeasures (MCM) Discussion


Segment 2 - Trade & Travel Discussion


Segment 3 - Finance Discussion


Segment 4 - Communications Discussion and Epilogue Video


Segment 5 - Hotwash and Conclusion



God help us all, Zeljko Serdar

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

PM2.5 atmospheric particulate matter (PM)



What is PM2.5 and Why You Should Care



PM2.5 readings are often included in air quality reports from environmental authorities and companies. Find out what they mean and why you should monitor their levels.

PM2.5 refers to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3% the diameter of a human hair.
Commonly written as PM2.5, particles in this category are so small that they can only be detected with an electron microscope. They are even smaller than their counterparts PM10, which are particles that are 10 micrometres or less, and are also called fine particles.

Where Do PM2.5 Come From

How Big is Particulate Matter 2.5
Fine particles can come from various sources. They include power plants, motor vehicles, airplanes, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, volcanic eruptions and dust storms.
Some are emitted directly into the air, while others are formed when gases and particles interact with one another in the atmosphere.
For instance, gaseous sulfur dioxide emitted from power plants reacts with oxygen and water droplets in the air to form sulfuric acid as a secondary particle.

Why Are PM2.5 Dangerous

What is PM2.5
Since they are so small and light, fine particles tend to stay longer in the air than heavier particles. This increases the chances of humans and animals inhaling them into the bodies. Owing to their minute size, particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers are able to bypass the nose and throat and penetrate deep into the lungs and some may even enter the circulatory system.
Studies have found a close link between exposure to fine particles and premature death from heart and lung disease. Fine particles are also known to trigger or worsen chronic disease such as asthma, heart attack, bronchitis and other respiratory problems.
A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may lead to plaque deposits in arteries, causing vascular inflammation and a hardening of the arteries which can eventually lead to heart attack and stroke. Scientists in the study estimated that for every 10 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3) increase in fine particulate air pollution, there is an associated 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respectively.
The American Heart Association has also warned about the impact of PM2.5 on heart health and mortality:
“Exposure to PM <2 .5="" diameter="" in="" m="" span="" style="border: 0px; bottom: -0.25em; font-size: 12.0005px; line-height: 0; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline;">2.5
 over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years.”
An association between mothers’ exposure to fine particles and birth defects has also been established by several reports.
Children, older adults and those who are suffering from lung and/or heart disease are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of fine particles in the air and should take special precautions when ambient PM2.5 crosses unhealthy levels.

How to Read PM2.5 Readings

Due to the many adverse effects fine particles can inflict on a large number of people, PM2.5 is one of the major pollutants closely monitored by health authorities around the world. You will most likely come across a dedicated column for PM2.5 alongside the Air Quality Index (AQI), Pollutants Standards Index (PSI) or the air quality standards adopted by your country.
On a very clear and non-hazy day, the PM2.5 concentration can be as low as 5 μg/m3 or below. The 24-hour concentration of PM2.5 is considered unhealthy when it rises above 35.4 μg/m3.
Why 24-hour and not a shorter duration when evaluating the health impact of fine particles? This is because the potential damage caused by air pollutants depends not just on the concentration, but also on the duration of exposure. The longer you are exposed to PM2.5, the higher the risk of developing adverse effects caused by the exposure. That’s why a 24-hour measurement is a better reflection of the health effects of fine particles than say a three-hour reading.
The table below will give you a sense of what levels of PM2.5 are harmful and the appropriate precautions you need to take. It is based on the air quality standards for particle pollution published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

24-Hour PM2.5 Levels (μg/m3)

PM2.5
Air Quality Index
PM2.5 Health Effects
Precautionary Actions
0 to 12.0
Good
0 to 50
Little to no risk.None.
12.1 to 35.4
Moderate
51 to 100
Unusually sensitive individuals may experience respiratory symptoms.Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.
35.5 to 55.4
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
101 to 150
Increasing likelihood of respiratory symptoms in sensitive individuals, aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should limit prolonged exertion.
55.5 to 150.4
Unhealthy
151 to 200
Increased aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; increased respiratory effects in general population.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should avoid prolonged exertion; everyone else should limit prolonged exertion.
150.5 to 250.4
Very Unhealthy
201 to 300
Significant aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; significant increase in respiratory effects in general population.People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should avoid any outdoor activity; everyone else should avoid prolonged exertion.
250.5 to 500.4
Hazardous
301 to 500
Serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; serious risk of respiratory effects in general population.Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should remain indoors.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

How to Protect Yourself Against PM2.5

When the amount of PM2.5 is at unhealthy level, take these steps to reduce exposure and protect your health:
  • Stay indoor and close all windows and openings that allow polluted air to enter, when possible.
  • Turn on an air purifier that is equipped with a HEPA filter. Only a HEPA filter can effectively remove fine particles from the air.
  • Most air filters in air conditioners are not HEPA filters as the latter will reduce air intake and would require the motor to work harder to push / pull air through. But an air conditioner is still helpful when fresh air intake is limited as it helps to circulate air and cool down (or warm up) room temperature.
  • When most or all windows are closed, do not burn candle, incense or operate devices that emit smoke or gas to prevent harmful particles and gas (such as carbon monoxide) from building up.
  • If you are a road warrior who must drive in all weather conditions, get a real air purifier for your car that comes with at least HEPA and activated carbon filters. A normal car filter can’t even remove traffic exhaust properly, let alone microscopic particles.
  • If the air pollution is expected to last for many days, consider moving to an unaffected location.
  • Boost your body’s resistance against PM2.5 by increasing your intake of these nutrients.
  • If you must go outdoor, make it short and quick, and wear a N95 or higher face mask.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

CCRES Haematococcus pluvialis





Haematococcus pluvialis, from which natural astaxanthin is derived, is not easy to grow. It required a pH neutral environment and requires specialized knowledge and techniques to keep it free of contamination by unwanted algae, fungi and protozoa. Basically, there are two ways to grow astaxanthin in a closed or open system.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM, uses both.
It begins with Haematococcus growing in closed culture systems. After five to seven days, the algae is transported to giant open culture ponds for a reddening cycle. Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae gradually turn from green to red as they accumulate astaxanthin. When the algae is sufficiently infused with astaxanthin, the CCRES company team harvests, washes and dries the algae, then extracts the dried biomass.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)