četvrtak, 22. lipnja 2017.


Asking a question that assumes a particular answer is easy to do when you already think you're right and just want people to say you're right. The chemtrail conspiracy theory is the claim that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for unknown purposes undisclosed to the general public Believers (like me, myself & I) in the theory argue that normal contrails dissipate relatively quickly and that contrails that do not dissipate must contain additional substances.

We ask some question? #Chemtrail! Here are some answers from Weather Modification Inc. 3802 20th St. N Fargo, ND 58102 USA

Zeljko Serdar, CCRES
Who are you?
Weather Modification, Inc., is a global atmospheric sciences company committed to continued advances in the field of weather modification.
Weather Modification, Inc., has a wide range of services to provide knowledge, data, equipment and capability at any phase in your project. We can also tailor a program to meet your specific objectives and manage it from beginning to end.
Our talented scientists, researchers, project managers, technicians, and pilots have the expertise you need to carry out an efficient, effective weather program.

Cloud seeding?
Aerial cloud seeding is the process of delivering a seeding agent by aircraft - either at the cloud base or cloud top. Top seeding allows for direct injection of the seeding agent into the supercooled cloud top. Base seeding is the release of the seeding agent in the updraft of a cloud base.
Water resources are increasingly taxed by exploding demand and continued population growth. The world's population is projected to grow over 40% in the next 45 years.
Weather modification, commonly known as cloud seeding, is the application of scientific technology that can enhance a cloud's ability to produce precipitation. Weather Modification, Inc., is on the forefront of scientific technology to maximize water availability worldwide. Application of scientific concepts and extensive scientific experimentation has proven that cloud seeding increases the amount of precipitation.

What are the common applications of cloud seeding?
Cloud seeding is most commonly used to increase precipitation, both in warm and cold seasons (summer and winter). Spring and summer operations are usually conducted from aircraft, as the clouds of interest are convective (cumuliform). Winter storms are most often seeded to increase the snowfall over mountainous terrain. In these cold-season programs, seeding can be done either from aircraft or from ground-based facilities.
Warm season cloud seeding is also used to mitigate hail damage to homes, automobiles, property and crops. Hail damage mitigation efforts utilize airborne delivery of the seeding material.
In addition, cold fogs, those made of cloud droplets but existing at cold temperatures (less than 0°C); can often be dissipated by seeding with ice-forming agents.

How can the effectiveness of cloud seeding operations be determined?
The success of cloud seeding programs for increased participation can be measured using precipitation gauge data to compare rainfall or snowfall during comparable seeded and non-seeded periods. Another evaluation technique relies on the comparison of seeded seasons with other non-seeded seasons in the same location. For warm season seeding projects, weather radar is sometimes used for evaluations, because all the clouds within range are measured. Some wintertime projects, designed to increase snowfall and subsequent runoff, measure changes in stream flows to assess the impact of seeding efforts.

What are the environmental consequences of weather modification?
Environmental impact from cloud seeding operations can be broken into two categories:
The effects of the chemical seeding agents used for the programs
The impacts of precipitation changes

Environmental Impact from Cloud Seeding Agents
The active ingredient in cold cloud seeding agents is silver iodide, or AgI. Unlike ionic silver, the silver iodide compound is very stable, essentially inert. Numerous studies have been conducted that clearly demonstrate its safety. Even projects operated for decades have experienced no adverse environmental impacts because of silver iodide. Additional information about the safety of silver iodide, is found in many studies and reports. The active ingredient in warm cloud seeding is simple salt, either sodium chloride (NaCl, table salt), or calcium chloride (CaCl). Both are found abundantly in the environment; sea spray releases millions of tons of NaCl into the atmosphere annually.
Environmental Impact of Precipitation Changes
The effects of cloud seeding on precipitation are typically on the order of 10%, while seasonal natural variability may be as much as a factor of two. When viewed in this context, the seasonal effects resulting from increased precipitation are negligible.

Are cloud seeding activities subject to regulation or control?
In the United States, most states have laws in place that require permits for all cloud seeding activities, and that those persons conducting the projects be qualified to do so. In addition, site-specific permits and/or environmental evaluations may sometimes be required. U.S. Federal law requires that all cloud seeding operations be reported annually to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

How quickly can Weather Modification, Inc. , launch a project?
Depending upon the location and nature of the program, we may be able to mobilize an effective program within a few weeks of a signed contract. The fastest response generally includes the use of facilities owned by Weather Modification, Inc., including aircraft, radars and ground-based seeding equipment. If a client wants to use aircraft they already own, additional time is required to make required aircraft modifications and obtain needed certifications. Because of our extensive experience and resources, Weather Modification, Inc., does this faster than anyone.

Do I need to have my own aircraft, or does Weather Modification, Inc. , supply them?
We operate a fleet of reliable twin-engine aircraft suitable for virtually every project, from warm season cloud base seeding operations, to wintertime operations in known icing conditions, to on-top convective storm treatment and/or atmospheric assessment and evaluation. We can even handle your high-altitude (up to 43,000 ft) research needs.
If you wish to use your own aircraft, we can quickly install all requisite seeding equipment and instrumentation for you.
Either way, your program can be up and running quickly and safely.

What does a cloud seeding project cost?
The cost of a project depends upon the target area size, season and topography, types of seeding to be conducted, needed equipment and personnel, and the length of the desired project period. It is usually better to consider benefit-to-cost ratios. If you think you might be interested, contact us and we’ll be happy to assess your needs and offer an estimate.

If I am interested in starting a weather modification project, where do I begin?
You can contact us by telephone, mail, fax – or via our simple online form. Or if you prefer, e-mail us at info@weathermodification.com. Tell us where and when you need your project, what you hope to accomplish, and we’ll help you get started.

Some for the end?
Let us help you better manage your atmospheric and water resources.
When most people look up they see clouds.

ponedjeljak, 15. svibnja 2017.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine In Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) is a modified form of carnitine, an amino acid derivative found in red meat, which is readily absorbed throughout the body, including the brain. It is involved in fatty acid metabolism and may improve several aspects of brain health, including mitochondrial function, activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and possibly cognition. However the data suggests that it does not provide a substantial cognitive benefit to patients with dementia.

L carnitine is a naturally occurring substance (amino acid) that is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids to produce energy. It is also known for its antioxidant properties.
L carnitine is produced in the liver and the kidneys. This biologically active amino acid helps burn fatty acids into fuel for energy. It can also be found in foods and diet or health supplements which are often promoted as l carnitine weight loss because of its ability to boost energy and improve strength and stamina. Foods that contain l carnitine include red meat like beef and pork, nuts, legumes, fruits such as apricot and banana, and cereals.
Acetyl-L-carnitine appears to be effective in mild cognitive impairment. This may be an early signal of Alzheimer’s.
Reason: Acetyl-L-carnitine can protect the brain from neurotoxicity. It can also ward off oxygen deprivation. Acetyl-L-carnitine can even preserve cells energy-producing mitochondria. Plus, it can rejuvenate mental and physical function. Dosages for studies have been in the 1,500 – 4,000 mg range. These are divided into two or three doses. However, we recommend no more than 1,000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine a day without medical supervision.

1,200mg daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  General cognitive decline (not Alzheimer’s) shows similar benefit in aged individuals at 1-2g daily. The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain. In regards to human studies on Alzheimer’s disease, 1200 mg of Acetyl-L-Carnitine daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain A meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggests that supplements of acetyl-L-carnitine may improve mental function and reduce deterioration in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease . In these studies, subjects took acetyl-L-carnitine for 3–12 months.

L-karnitin je derivat esencijalnih aminokiselina lizina i metionina. Zadužen je za transport dugih lanaca masnih kiselina do mitohondrija, i to u stanicama za proces beta-oksidacije, tj. iskorištavanja dugolančanih masnih kiselina kao izvora energije.
Dva su oblika karnitina: L-karnitin - aktivni oblik i D-karnitin - slabo aktivan i toksičan, sprječava sintezu L-karnitina. Ta  "desno" orijentirana molekula nije normalno prisutna u namirnicama i u organizmu, a tijelo ju ne može iskoristiti.
L-karnitin se u organizmu sintetizira u jetri (90%) i bubrezima, odakle se transportira u druga tkiva. Najveće koncentracije nalaze se u tkivu koje konvertira masne kiseline u energiju, poput mišića skeleta i srčanog mišića. Tijelo odraslog čovjeka (oko 75 kg) sadrži oko 19 grama L-karnitina, prvenstveno u mišićima (puno manje u jetri). Majčino mlijeko sadrži oko 11 mg/l, pa se zato dodaje i u hranu za dojenčad i malu djecu.
Većina ljudi svakodnevnom prehranom unosi 50-200 mg L-karnitina. Katalizatori i uvjet za njegovu tvorbu su prisustvo željeza te vitamina C, B6 i niacina.
L-karnitin pomaže da masne stanice iz okoline pređu u mitohondrije, gdje se iskorištavaju kao energija. Naime, on služi kao nosač za transport masnih kiselina preko membrane u unutrašnjost mitohondrija gdje se odvija izgaranje masnih kiselina koje potom služe kao izvor energije. Na taj način L-karnitin može pridonijeti procesu mršavljenja gubitkom masti, ali ne potiče pojačano trošenje masnog tkiva. Ako nema dovoljno karnitina, masti se ne iskorištavaju za stvaranje energije nego se pojačano talože u mišićima i masnom tkivu. Posljedica su slabost mišića i osjećaj opće slabosti.


Prvi korak u iskorištavanju triglicerida kao izvora energije je njihova hidroliza na masne kiseline i glicerol koji se zatim prenose do aktivnih tkiva gdje se oksidiraju da bi dali energiju. Kada glicerol uđe u aktivno tkivo, on se djelovanjem staničnih enzima pretvara u glicerol-3-fosfat, spoj koji ulazi u glikolitički put razgradnje glukoze i tako daje energiju. Masne kiseline se prvo moraju razgraditi, a zatim oksidirati. Taj proces odvija se samo u mitohondrijima. Masne se kiseline u mitohondrij prenose pomoću prijenosnika - karnitina. Kada uđu u mitohondrij one se odvajaju od njega i zatim razgrađuju postupnim oslobađanjem odsječaka od dva ugljikova atoma u obliku acetil-koenzima A (acetil-CoA). Taj proces razgradnje masnih kiselina zove se beta-oksidacija. Proces se ponavlja dok se cijeli lanac masne kiseline ne razgradi u niz molekula acetil-koenzima A. Za svaku molekulu acetil-koenzima A koja se odvoji od masne kiseline oslobode se ukupno 4 atoma vodika koji se oksidiraju u mitohondrijima i pritom nastaju velike količine energije.
Acetil-L-karnitin je derivat L-karnitina koji se s pomoću enzima acetil-L-karnitin-transferaze sintetizira u mozgu i jetri. U procesu oksidacije masnih kiselina sudjeluje u transportu koenzima u mitohondrije. Njegova je funkcija proizvodnja acetil-kolina (prijenos signala kroz živčane stanice) te smanjuje količinu kortizola u krvi čime sprječava propadanje tkiva. Također, preko nekih međumehanizama utječe na povišenje razine testosterona, a prema nekim istraživanjima i na povišenje razine hormona rasta. Pridonosi i boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji.

Slika 2. - Acetil-L-karnitin
Hrana biljnog podrijetla oskudan je izvor L-karnitina. Bogati izvori su meso i mliječni proizvodi. Npr. mrkva ima oko 0,5 mg/100 g L-karnitina, a crveno meso oko 145 mg/100 g.  Iako je glavni izvor L-karnitina u prehrani crveno meso (naročito govedina i janjetina) čak i vegetarijanci mogu sintetizirati količine dovoljne da uz dostatnuu količinu aminokiselina lizina i metionina, te željeza, vitamina C, B6 i niacina sprječe insuficijenciju s težim posljedicama. 
Slika 3. - Crveno meso

Nedostaci L-karnitina

Nedostatak L-karnitina koji bi se mogao prepoznati nekim općim simptomima rijetka je pojava. Najteži oblik - sistematski nedostatak često je genetske prirode i može se utvrditi prema niskoj razini u serumu. Povećan gubitak L-karnitina moguć je kod bolesnika na hemodijalizi, a čest nedostatak uočen je kod prerano rođene djece hranjene mlijekom na  bazi soje, bez dodatka L-karnitina.
Prvi znaci nedostatka L-karnitina često su mišićna slabost i hipoglikemija.
Simptomi deficita su:
  •  slabi mišićni tonus i koordinacija
  •  kronično povišena tjelesna temperatura
  •  poteškoće u hranjenju
  •  gubitak na težini i/ili slabo napredovanje
  •  letargija i neobična slabost
  •  tvrdokorne i učestale infekcije
  •  simptomi nalik gripi
 Funkcije L-karnitina:
  •  usporava proces starenja tako što dovodi odgovarajuće količine energije u stanicu. Svaka stanica u tijelu će biti zdravija, ako joj je dostupna optimalna količina energije;
  •  smanjuje količinu triglicerida i povećava količinu visokozasićenog kolesterola, što prevenira srčane bolesti;
  •  može pomoći pri gubitku tjelesne težine, posebno u kombinaciji s redukcijskom dijetom s nižim udjelom kalorija iz ugljikohidrata, što bi trebalo dodatno potkrijepiti istraživanjima;
  •  neradikalno prilagođava razinu energije u tijelu, bez posljedica koje nastaju korištenjem nekih drugih visoko koncentriranih suplemenata. Štiti tkiva od oštećenja u slučaju pomanjkanja kisika;
  •  kao transporter energije u stanice pomaže njihovoj brzoj obnovi u slučaju bolesti ili oštećenja uzrokovanih intenzivnim treningom, te jača opći imunitet tijela;
  •  posebno je dobar za srce, jer pomaže u sprječavanju srčane aritmije, a acetil-L-karnitin je posebno koristan za živčani sustav i mozak, pa pomaže i u prevenciji Alzheimerove bolesti;
  •  pridonosi boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji;
  •  dokazano pomaže održanju razine imunoloških stanica CD4 (leukocita) kod oboljelih od virusa.
Najveći broj pojedinačnih znanstvenih radova odnosi se na korištenje L- karnitina kod vrlo aktivnih sportaša – natjecatelja. Ne bez razloga. Premda se L- karnitin u jetri sintetizira iz aminokiselina lizina i metionina, događa se da taj proces pretvaranja zakaže, osobito kad se njegova potrošnja poveća forsiranim treningom. U izgradnji L-karnitina (beta-hidroksi-gama-trimetilamonij butirata) pored navedenih aminokiselina, sudjeluju i C vitamin, nikotinamid, željezo te vitamin B6.
Modificirani oblik L-karnitina (propionil-L karnitin) postao je 'zanimljiv' kada je dvostruko slijepim istraživanjem potvrđeno da 500 mg/dan, poslije 6 mjeseci, može za 26% povećati kapacitet treninga. Ti rezultati nisu potvrđeni kasnijim istraživanjima. Međutim, utvrđeno je da korištenje L-karnitina smanjuje bolnost mišića. Mišljenje da će zbog utjecaja na energiju L-karnitin pomoći i u izgradnji mišićne mase, ili pak popraviti izdržljivost kod vježbanja, nije znanstveno potvrđeno.
Svi istraživači utjecaja L-karnitina slažu se u ocjeni da on vrlo pozitivno djeluje na rad srca što je indirektno ergogeno djelovanje - bolja mišićna kontrakcija zbog bolje opskrbe masnim kiselinama i veći volumen djelovanja. Također je poboljšana i oksigenacija tkiva i organa.
Ako se pak uvažava iskustvo aktivnih športaša, osobito body buildera i dizača utega, ono pokazuje da je L-karnitin jedno od najboljih sredstava za prevenciju njihovog najvećeg neprijatelja - kroničnog umora. Naime, L-karnitin usporava stvaranje mliječne kiseline u mišićima.
U jednom su pokusu praćeni parametri nastanka umora pri opterećenju srednjeg intenziteta kod pacijenta s anginom pektoris koji je dobivao L-karnitin. Primijećeni su poboljšanje i odgoda umora za čak 50%. Neki su pokusima znatno uzdrmali tezu o uštedi glikogena pod utjecajem suplementiranja L-karnitinom. L-karnitin ima jednu manu - sporo se apsorbira, pa je potrebno višekratno uzimanje. Prije nego bi se mogli uočiti bilo kakvi učinci, L-karnitin treba uzimati najmanje 4 tjedna. 
Slika 1. - Autor, Zeljko Serdar, HCOIE

Još neka istraživanja

Novija istraživanja vezana uz starenje pokazala su spektakularne rezultate na laboratorijskim životinjama. Kombinacija acetil-L-karnitina (esterificirani L-karnitin s dodatkom acetilne grupe, koji efikasnije djeluje u mozgu) i alfa lipoične kiseline (Alpha Lipoic Acid-ALA, univerzalni antioksidans i mitohondrijalni kofaktor) povećala je mitohondrijalnu energiju i snažno je djelovala na poboljšanje memorije. Bez obzira na uzbuđenje vezano uz ta otkrića, klinička istraživanja na ljudima, iako u pripremi, još nisu obavljena, barem ne u relevantnoj mjeri.
Neke preliminarne studije na bolesnicima s Alzheimerovom bolesti pokazuju da pacijenti stari do 65 godina pokazuju određeno usporenje napredovanja bolesti (suplementacija po 3 g/dan tijekom 12 mjeseci).
Kliničke studije provedene na pacijentima koji su doživjeli srčani udar i odmah potom, uz primjenu odgovarajućih lijekova dobivali su 4 g L-karnitina, pokazale su povoljne rezultate. U maloj studiji na 160 pacijenata, nakon tretmana od godine dana smrtnost je bila 1,2% u odnosu na 12.5% u placebo skupini. U drugoj skupini od 472 pacijenta, razlika fatalnih ishoda bila je bitno manja, no stanje srčane klijetke bilo je mnogo bolje u skupini koja je dobivala L-karnitin. Temeljem tih rezultata upravo je u tijeku velika studija na 4000 pacijenata.
L-karnitin dodan standardnoj kliničkoj terapiji za bolesti srca dao je dobre rezultate. Pacijenti koji su dobivali 1,5 g propionil-L-karnitina u periodu tijekom mjesec dana, pokazali su znatno bolju toleranciju na fizičke aktivnosti. Isto je pokazala i studija na 266 pacijenata tijekom 6 mjeseci. 2 g L-karnitina dobivali su bolesnici s anginom pektoris, što im je značajno produžilo vrijeme normalne fizičke aktivnosti.

Upotreba i doziranje

Za ljude s normalnim potrebama dovoljan je 1 g/dan. Preporučuje se uz doručak uzeti 500 mg, a ako se osoba bavi nekom fizičkom aktivnošću,  aerobnom ili anaerobnom, onda bi trebalo pola sata prije aktivnosti uzeti još 500 mg.
Potrebu za većim količinama imaju sportaši te jetreni i bubrežni bolesnici čiji organizam ne može proizvesti dovoljnu količinu.
Dnevna doza ne bi trebala prijeći 4 g, jer tada koža može poprimiti neugodan "riblji" miris. Intravenozno se L-karnitin daje samo u slučajevima utvrđenih genetskih nedostataka.
Treba voditi računa i o obliku u kojemu se L-karnitin uzima. Naime, količina od npr. 1g ne može se staviti u dovoljnu malu tabletu, jer L-karnitin treba i veću količinu tvari - nosača u tableti, što može dosta poskupiti proizvod. Zato se preporučuju i tekući pripravci s L-karnitinom.


L-karnitin nije čudotvorno sredstvo koje topi masti same za sebe, ali će osobama koje su odlučile uz proces redukcije tjelesne težine uložiti i nešto energije, pomoći da brže dođu do rezultata. Uzimanje L-karnitina  bez aerobne tjelesne aktivnosti ne daje velike rezultate, pa je njegovo samostalno uzimanje, bez kvalitetnog programa vježbanja, manje djelotvorno. 
Acetyl L-Carnitine može pomoći kod Alzheimera (odgađa progresiju i poboljšava stanje), depresije, mišićne distrofije, dijabetesa, oboljenja jetre. Koristan je i kod angine pektoris jer poboljšava iskorištavanje kisika i stvaranja energije u mitohondrijima.


  1.  Mueller DM, Seim H, Kiess W, Loster H, Richter T. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism 2002; 51(11): 1389-91.
  2.  Sirtori CR, Calabresi L, Ferrara S, Pazzucconi F, Bondioli A, Baldassarre D, Birreci A, Koverech A. L-carnitine reduces plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with hyper Lp(a). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2000 Oct;10(5):247-51.
  3.  Vescovo G, Ravara B, Gobbo V, Sandri M, Angelini A, Della Barbera M, Dona M, Peluso G, Calvani M, Mosconi L, Dalla Libera L. L-Carnitine: a potential treatment for blocking apoptosis and preventing skeletal muscle myopathy in heart failure. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2002 Sep;283(3):C802-10.
  4.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P, Beegum R, Rastogi SS, Sachan DS. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J 1996 Jan;72(843):45-50.
  5.  Gurlek A et al. The effects of L-carnitine treatment on left ventricular function and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2000 Jun;2(2):189-93.
  6.  Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002 Feb;282(2):E474-82.
  7.  Laplante A, Vincent G, Poirier M, Des Rosiers C. Effects and metabolism of fumarate in the perfused rat heart; A 13C mass isotopomer study. Am J Physiol 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):E74-82.
  8.  PDR® for Nutritional Supplements™. Hendler and Rorvik. Medical Economics Company, Inc. Montrale, NJ 2001.
  9.  Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):169-76.

ponedjeljak, 1. svibnja 2017.

Alternative treatments to delay or prevent Alzheimer’s disease

There are two different methods that can be used for the production of coenzyme Q10, one method employs a ‘natural’ process and the other uses chemical synthesis – a synthetic process. The natural process utilizes living organisms and is referred to as a biological fermentation/extraction process. CoenzymeQ10 can also be synthesized by a chemical process, which produces a similar, but distinctly different product that contains chemical compounds not found in the natural form. 


Parkinson’s disease is a common aging-related disorder that impacts the lives of many around the world. Parkinson’s disease occurs when the brain is no longer able to produce certain protein’s the control motor functions, and eventually, cognitive functions.
When a person suffers from Parkinson’s disease, they may experience weakness, slowed movement, and cognitive impairment. Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are measures you can take to help control the symptoms.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may slow the progression of the disease. Animal studies have found that CoQ10 decreases the damage done to the neurons in the brain affected by Parkinson’s disease.
Alzheimer’s disease impacts the lives of millions of people every year and is the sixth leading cause of death. Alzheimer’s disease may develop for several reasons: aging, genetics, oxidative stress on the brain, just to name a few.
Animal studies have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps relieve the oxidative stress on a brain related to Alzheimer’s disease. When a brain is overwhelmed by oxidative stress, it suffers from inflammation and results in the loss of cognition, memory, and the loss of physical function.
Although so far these finding have been found in animal studies, they may indicate what the results will look like in humans. In fact, humans suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency show lover levels of CoQ10 in their spinal fluid, which may be indicative of significant oxidative stress effecting their brains.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may help prevent and treat the symptoms of such mental disorders as bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. These specific mental disorders are associated with increased levels of brain oxidative stress levels and mitochondrial dysfunction, lowering the levels of naturally occurring CoQ10.
Therefore, people suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency don’t respond as well to prescribed antidepressant medication. By taking a CoQ10 supplement, these medications may be more effective and help reverse the symptoms of these often debilitating mental disorders.
One study found that people suffering from bipolar disorder experienced a significant reduction in symptoms once they started taking 1200 mgs of CoQ10 a day. Some antidepressants actually decrease the levels of CoQ10, so people taking these medications may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement.
Migraines are quite common, affecting over 10 million people in the United States every year. Over three million people suffer from more than one migraine headache a month, which can affect the quality of their lives and even their jobs.
Although the chain of events leading to a migraine headache are fuzzy, it is believed that low CoQ10 levels may share some responsibility in creating this debilitating condition. Many people have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps maintain their migraine headaches, decreasing the frequency of them. CoQ10 supplements also help maintain the symptoms associated with migraines such as nausea.
CoQ10 supplements are a major component in maintain the health of your heart. People with a family history of heart disease and high blood pressure may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement. Maintaining healthy levels of CoQ10 keep your heart running like a well-oiled machine—improving the overall health of your cardiovascular system.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement will help regulate your blood pressure, improve the functioning diastolic function of your heart, and reduces the likelihood of developing heart disease. Taking a CoQ10 supplement not only helps those already suffering from cardiovascular problems, but works as a great preventative measure.
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

srijeda, 19. travnja 2017.


‘A typical family spends nearly $2,000 per year on their home energy bills. Much of that money, however, is wasted through leaky windows or ducts, old appliances, or inefficient heating and cooling systems. The CCRES Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Savings Projects offer easy, step-by-step instructions to home energy efficiency improvements that will save you energy and money’. – Zeljko Serdar

Installing continuous air and thermal barriers between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned spaces above can save energy and money, improve comfort, and safeguard indoor air quality. Your garage may be a source of multiple pollutants, including dangerous carbon monoxide from car exhaust. In addition to careful air sealing and insulating, never leave your car engine running with the garage door closed and store paints, solvents, and other chemicals in tightly sealed containers.

Before insulating the floor between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned space above, take the time to:
  • Carefully air seal all gaps between the garage and the conditioned space above and the garage and the outdoors (the rim/band joist, for example)
  • Calculate the amount and determine the R-value of the insulation you will need
  • Gather all required tools and materials.
Choose materials that don’t require specialized equipment or tools to install.
  • Blanket insulation
  • Wire fasteners
  • Tape measure
  • Sharp utility knife
  • Caulk and foam sealant
  • Caulk gun
  • Stepladder
  • Straightedge
  • Respirator or dust mask
  • Eye protection
  • Protective clothing, including long-sleeved shirt, long pants, closed shoes, and gloves.


  • Double-check your insulation
    1.) Double-check your insulation
    Before opening the packages, verify that the insulation material is the correct width and R-value.
  • Seal air gaps
    2.) Seal air gaps
    Before insulating, carefully air seal gaps in the floor between the garage and the conditioned space as well as the garage and the outdoors (rim/band joists, for example). Use caulk for gaps smaller then ¼ inch and foam for gaps ¼ inch to 3 inches. In addition to improving energy efficiency, air sealing also helps keep exhaust fumes and other pollutants out of the conditioned space.
  • Fit insulation between joists
    3.) Fit insulation between joists
    Ensure insulation extends to the outside edge of each joist bay and is in contact with blocking or rim/band joist and the subfloor above. When using kraft-faced batts, install kraft facing against the conditioned side of the cavity. The kraft facing creates a vapor retarder that prevents trapped moisture from reducing the insulation’s effectiveness.
  • Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    4.) Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    Ensure ends of insulation are butted snugly together and in full contact with the subfloor of the conditioned space above.
  • Fasten the insulation in place
    5.) Fasten the insulation in place
    Use wire fasteners to support the insulation so that it is in full contact with the subfloor but not compressed.
    CCRES DIY TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources ( CCRES )

Renewable Energy Croatia 2012

srijeda, 25. siječnja 2017.



Projekt CCRES GINKGO oformio je Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)  s ciljem da se poduzimanjem niza poduzetničkih pothvata stvore preduvjeti za uspjeh realizacije pilot projekta podizanja nasada ginkga u Županiji Ličko-senjskoj u razdoblju od 2016. do 2020. godine. Ginkgo i proizvodi od ginkga veoma su traženi proizvodi u farmaceutskoj industriji, industriji ljepote, te u kulinarstvu, međutim potpuno nepoznat hrvatskim poljoprivrednicima i poduzetnicima.

GINKGO‬ BILOBA je prekrasno, neobično i nadasve dugovječno drvo koje na Zemlji živi već 200 milijuna godina. Arheološki dokazi ukazuju da je drvo ginkga postojalo još u doba dinosaurusa, a isti fosilni ostaci ukazuju kako se tijekom svih tih godina pa sve do danas, u botaničkom smislu, nije značajno promijenilo zbog čega se naziva još i živim fosilom. Ono što ginkga također čini neobičnim je što u biljnom kraljevstvu nema bliskih rođaka, već se klasificira u posebnu diviziju Ginkgophyta.
Gingko biloba smatra se simbolom otpornosti na promjene i čuvarom tajni dalekosežne gotovo nemjerljive prošlosti, no ono što ga čini toliko cijenjenim su i njegova medicinska svojstva. Porijeklom je iz Kine, a u Europu je stigao u prvoj polovici 18.stoljeća. U Kineskoj tradicinalnoj medicini prisutan je tisućama godina, a dolaskom na zapad vrlo brzo je prihvaćen i postao cijenjena medicinska biljka.
Dijelovi biljke koji se koriste u ljekovite svrhe i koji sadrže brojne biološki aktivne sastojke su listovi i sjemenke. Listovi sadrže kompleksnu mješavinu od 40 različitih flavonoida koji se najčešće standardiziraju na 22-27% flavonoid glikozida (ginko flavon glikozidi) i 6-7% terpena (ginkolidi i bilobalidi).
Istraživanja pokazuju kako ginkgo može blagotvorno djelovati kod stanja poput demencije, oslabljenih kognitivnih funkcija uslijed starosti, problema s cirkulacijom i kardiovaskularnih oboljenja poput periferne arterijske bolesti.

Projekt CCRES GINKGO vode stručnjaci s dugogodišnjim iskustvom u agronomiji, agrotehnici, kemiji, rasadničkoj i plantažerskoj proizvodnji ljekovita bilja, farmaciji, kozmetici, ekonomiji, marketingu i poduzetništvu. Projekt CCRES GINKGO djeluje na način da prati buduće proizvođače ginkga od njihove ideje za podizanjem nasada, preko održavanja nasada, profilacije ginkgo proizvoda do konačnog plasmana proizvoda na domaćem i stranom tržištu te na principima savjetovanja, suradništva i ugovornih odnosa.

Temeljni zadatci projekta su osigurati primjenu optimalnih tehnika podizanja i održavanja pilot nasada, pronaći kroz pilot projekt najbolji kultivar za naše podneblje između ginkgo biloba Beijing Gold, Fastigiata, Mariken, Variegata, odrediti optimalnu eksploataciju ploda i otkup tržišnih viškova.
Projekt promovira ekološku i organsku proizvodnju ginkga, stoga se idealno uklapa u regiju koja želi svoju kompletnu poljoprivredu bazirati na organskoj proizvodnji i ekološkim načelima.
Pokusni nasad je na 1250m2 poljoprivrednog zemljišta. Projekt CCRES GINKGO planira pod stalne nasade podignuti oko 300 hektara ginkga.
Prve dvije godine kod podizanja pilot nasada traže se više angažiranosti i njega pilot nasada, dok za preostali 100 godišnji i veći vijek eksploatacije ostaje samo berba ginkgo lista i sjemena.

Dobrobiti projekta prelaze okvire Županije Ličko-senjske, strukovnog udruženja HCOIE, te budućih kooperanata, jer otvara nova radna mjesta s perspektivom dugoročnog razvoja, kultivira poljoprivredno zemljište koje je velikim dijelom zapušteno te obogaćuje turističku ponudu regije jedinstvenim turističkim sadržajima.

Željko Serdar
Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

Are you concerned about #brain #health? Or, of one day not recognizing your closest #friend? If so, or if you care about friends and family members dealing with poor brain #function, don’t miss this. CCRES #GINKGO. The #Alzheimer’s and #Dementia. Brain disorders, including memory loss, are fast becoming the single biggest health problem in the world.
Did you know?
Every 3 seconds someone gets diagnosed with Alzheimer’s or dementia
Dementia starts in the brain 30 to 50 years before #symptoms appear
Alzheimer’s disease is the 6th leading cause of death
The average burden on families dealing with late-stage dementia is $300,000
46+ million people are losing their minds (this will double every 20 years)
The “silent epidemic” of early-onset dementia is on the rise

#ZeljkoSerdar #GinkgoBiloba #GrowYourFood #CCRES #HCOIE #RenewableEnergy 

četvrtak, 2. lipnja 2016.

Gracilaria Lemaneiformis

Edible seaweed are low-calorie and packed with nutrients. Now scientists have found that a type of commercial red macroalgae could help counteract food allergies. They report their findings, using mice, in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (May 17, 2016).
Food allergies are a major global health issue that can be life threatening. A 2014 study by researchers at Mount Sinai Hospital estimated that the condition affects about 8 percent of children and 5 percent of adults worldwide. In people who are allergic, certain compounds in food trigger a cascade of immune system reactions that lead to symptoms such as hives, wheezing and dizziness — and in the worst cases, anaphylactic shock.

Previous research has suggested that certain seaweed varieties contain polysaccharides with anti-asthmatic and anti-allergy effects. But no one had investigated whether similar molecules in #Gracilaria #lemaneiformis, a commercial variety of red algae, might have similar properties.
Guang-Ming Liu and colleagues wanted to find out. The researchers isolated polysaccharides from G. lemaneiformis and fed them to a group of mice sensitive to tropomyosin, a protein that is a major shellfish allergen. Another group of mice, also sensitive to tropomyosin, did not get the polysaccharides. After both groups were given the allergen, allergy symptoms in the treated mice were reduced compared to the untreated animals. 

CCRES ALGAE TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources ( #CCRES )

subota, 19. ožujka 2016.



Life began about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans with the appearance of prokaryotes.

The oldest reliable date for the appearance of the eukaryotes is about 1.9 billion years ago, when the first members of a group of unicellular organisms called acritarchs appear in the fossil record  in China.

Acritarchs …
Are probably the remains of a group of ancient eukaryotes
Were plankton
Some resemble dinoflagellates while others resemble green algae
Their relationship among living organisms is uncertain


Eukaryotic cells came into existence probably by a process called endosymbiosis.

Mitochondria arose first, as an early eukaryotic cell engulfed but did not digest a bacterium capable of aerobic respiration. The two organisms lived together, one inside the other, and both benefited.

Fungi, plants and animals are all probably derived from protists.

Fungi and animals are eukaryotes organisms that lack plastids.

Another line of evolution, one that had mitochondria, entered another endosymbiosis with a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, which later evolved into a chloroplast.

This line gave rise to algae including green algae, which in turn produced true plants, the embryophytes.

Several clades exist that still have some extant members whose plastids have numerous prokaryotic characters. Chloroplasts of red algae especially resemble cyanobacteria.

The kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that cannot be assigned with certainty to other kingdoms

The kingdom Protista is an artificial grouping and classification does not represent evolutionary relationships.

This kingdom is also known as Protoctista.

Protists covered in this course are those photosynthetic organisms that function like plants in ecosystems.

They are the "grass of the ocean".

Protists to be studied include:

Algae: photosynthetic organisms studied by phycologists.
Slime molds and oomycetes: heterotrophic organisms that are traditionally studied by mycologists, although these organisms are not fungi.

Another group of protists not included in this course are the ciliates, flagellates, and other heterotrophs.

The phylogenetic relationship among the different groups of protists is controversial, e.g. the relationship between the green and brown algae.


DNA Structure

In prokaryotes, proteins do not surround the DNA. Its numerous negative charges are neutralized by calcium ions. In eukaryotes, the DNA is packaged with histones forming nucleosomes. The DNA condenses into chromosomes.

The genome is a short circle of DNA containing about 3,000 genes, and lack introns. In eukaryotes, the DNA molecule carries thousands of genes. The chromosomes of eukaryotes have a homologous and never occur as a single chromosome in normal circumstances. Eukaryotic genes have introns, which do not code for any type of RNA.

Nuclear structure and division

Prokaryotic cells lack nucleus. The DNA circle is attached to the plasma membrane. As the cell grows and the plasma membrane expands, the two daughter DNA molecules are separated.

The nuclei of plants, animals and fungi are very similar in structure, metabolism, mitosis and meiosis. Apparently these three clades diverged after the nucleus had achieved a high level of complexity.

In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is found in the nucleus.

The nucleus is surround by two double-layered membranes with nuclear pores.

A nucleolus is present.

The nuclei are typically haploid or diploid. Mitosis assures that each daughter cell receives one of each type of chromosome to maintain the species number of chromosomes.

Meiosis usually occurs as part of sexual reproduction. The pairing of paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes, followed by crossing over and genetic recombination assures genetic diversity.

Some groups of organisms have a unique mitotic process that may represent an earlier divergence in the history of eukaryotes.


Prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles. They have ribosomes and storage granules, which are not-membrane bound organelles.

Photosynthetic prokaryotes have folded plasma membrane that projects into the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles that compartmentalize the cell and perform different functions simultaneously.

Ribosomes of prokaryotes are 70S, being smaller and denser than the 80S ribosomes of eukaryotes.

Flagella and cilia are uniform in eukaryotes having a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. A few prokaryotes have flagella, and never have the 9+2 arrangement. They are not composed of microtubules or tubulin.

Endosymbiotic Theory.

This hypothesis attempts to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

In 1905, K. C. Mereschkowsky had speculated that plastids were prokaryotes living inside eukaryotic cells.

In the 1960s, plastids and mitochondria were discovered to have their own DNA and ribosomes, both with prokaryotic features.

Plastids and mitochondria divide similarly to prokaryotes.
They lack microtubules.
Their DNA is small and circular, contains a small number of genes, and is organized like prokaryotic DNA.
Their ribosomes are sensitive to the same antibiotics that interfere with prokaryotic ribosomes.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria could have originated from bacteria that were phagocytized by a large heterotrophic prokaryote.

Mitochondria could have derived from an aerobic prokaryote that was ingested but not digested.
Chloroplasts could have been derived from a photosynthetic prokaryote, probably a cyanobacterium.
Chloroplasts originated several times.
An endosymbionts is an organism that lives within another dissimilar organism.

These bacteria were then adopted as endosymbionts rather than being digested.

With time these endosymbionts became simplified and specialized to perform only photosynthesis or respiration.

The DNA of the endosymbionts and many or its functions were transferred to the nuclear DNA.

The nuclear membrane could have originated from an infolding of the plasma membrane of a prokaryote.

Prokaryotes have their single circular chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.

Infolding of other portions of the plasma membrane may have given origin to the ER and Golgi complex.

Primary endosymbiosis gave rise to a clade containing red algae, green algae and a small group called glaucophytes.

Glaucophyte chloroplasts still produce a thin film of cyanobacterial wall between themselves and the cell.
Red algal chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not b, and the cyanobacterial pigment phycobilin, organized into particles called phycobilisomes.
Green algal cells do not have traces of bacterial wall or phycobilin, but instead have chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid accessory pigments, all of which are similar to chloroplasts in true plants.

Chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not bacteriochlorophyll. This suggests that the cyanobacteria and not photosynthetic bacteria is the ancestor of chloroplasts.

Prochlorophytes are a type of cyanobacteria that have both chlorophyll a and b, and lack phycobilins.

The prochlorophytes Prochloron and Prochlorothryx are closely related to chloroplasts and are thought to have a common ancestor. Prochloron exists as an obligate endosymbiont of marine invertebrates called ascidians.

Secondary endosymbiosis happened when a eukaryote engulfed another eukaryote.

Euglenoids originated when a eukaryote engulfed a green alga. The green alga has become so reduced that only the chloroplast remains.

Heterokonts have two different flagella of different length and ornamentation. They appear to be monophyletic.

One flagellum is long and ornamented with distinctive hairs (tinsels).
The other flagellum is shorter and smooth (whiplash).

Heterokonts are also known as stramenopiles.

Molecular sequence and these unique flagella provide evidence for the close relationship of oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, and brown algae.

They were involved in one or several endosymbiosis with entire cells of red algae.

Heterokonts appear to have diversified and then some entered into secondary endosymbiosis and became photosynthetic, whereas others did not. Lack of chloroplasts in these heterokonts is an ancestral condition.

Pigmented heterokonts may have originated through one or several secondary endosymbioses.

Most pigmented heterokonts have chlorophyll a and c, lack phycobilins, and have four chloroplast membranes instead of two as in red algae, green algae, glaucophytes and plants. Some have the remnant of red alga nucleus called the nucleopmorph, which still contains a nuclear envelope and a few genes.

These cells have four types of DNA; heterokont eukaryotic nucleus, red alga eukaryotic nucleomorph, chloroplast prokaryotic DNA circles, a mitochondrion prokaryotic DNA circles.

Types of cytokinesis

Several types of cytokinesis occur in algae.

Cytokinesis may occur by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

In almost all algae with wall, cytokinesis is similar to that of plants.

In some green algae, the phycoplast consists of microtubules oriented parallel to the plane where the new wall will form, which is perpendicular to the orientation of the spindle.

Embryophytes arose from green algae that divide with a phragmoplast rather than a phycoplast.


The following notes are base on Raven et al, 8th Edition, and Mauseth.


Also known as green algae.

A diverse group of about 17,000 species.

Most chlorophytes are aquatic, but some green algae can live on the surface of snow, on tree trunks, in soils, or symbiotically with protozoans, hydras or lichen-forming fungi.

Chlorophytes range in size from microscopic to quite large: unicellular, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments, thalloid.

Green algae have chlorophylls a and b and store starch as a food reserve inside their plastids.

Most green algae have firm cell walls composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and peptic substances.

The flagellated reproductive cells of some green algae resemble that of plant sperm.

Based on studies of mitosis, cytokinesis, reproductive cells and molecular similarities, the green algae have been divided into several classes. Three of these classes will be studied here:

Body construction in Green Algae

Motile colonies: aggregation of unspecialized cells; flagella present: this is considered to be an ancestral condition, a plesiomorphy.
Nonmotile colonies: similar to the motile colonies but cells have lost their flagella; this is considered an apomorphy.
Filamentous body: cells divide transversally, but sometimes producing a branch; some parts of their body may become specialized, e.g. holdfast for attachment.
Membranous body: cell division occurs in two planes forming a sheet of cells.
Parenchymatous body: cell division occurs in three planes; cells are interconnected by plasmodesmata and true parenchyma tissue is formed.
Coenocytic or siphonous body: karyokinesis occurs without cytokinesis resulting in a large multinucleate cell; the cell remains unspecialized.

Life cycles in Green Algae

The alternation of heteromorphic generations in angiosperms can be traced to green algae.

Monobiontic species consists of only one free-living generation. In some, the haploid phase represents the individual; in others, it is the diploid phase.

In dibiontic species, both stages of the alternation of generations are multicellular

The gametophyte is haploid and the sporophyte diploid.
The two phases may be isomorphic (similar) or heteromorphic (different body plan).
Sporophytes produce spores in sporangia (sing. sporangium).
The sporophyte usually produces spores by meiosis, but some by mitosis – these spores are diploid and produce a new sporophyte in a form of asexual reproduction.
Some gametophytes produce spores by mitosis, which develop into new gametophytes – asexual reproduction.
Gametes are produced in gametangia.
Gametes may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.

Cytokinesis in the Chlorophyta

The following notes are based on Raven et al.

The classes Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae form a phycoplast during cell division, which is system of microtubules parallel to the plane of cell division.

Nuclear envelope persists during mitosis.
Mitotic spindle forms and then disappears at telophase.
Daughter nuclei are separated by the phycoplast in which the microtubules lie perpendicular to the axis of division.
The role of the phycoplast is presumed to ensure that the cleavage furrow will pass between the two daughter nuclei.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or development of a furrow.
The Chlorophyceae form four narrow bands of microtubules known as flagellar roots, which are associated with the flagellar basal bodies (centrioles) of the flagella.
The Ulvophyceae have a persistent spindle but do not develop a phragmoplast or cell plate.

The class Charophyceae does not form a phycoplast but develop a phragmoplast like land plants.

Formation of a phragmoplast, which is parallel-aligned microtubules and microfilaments at right angles to the forming cell plate, is to generate a guiding and supporting matrix for the deposition of new cell plate.

The phragmoplast is a system of microtubules, microfilaments and ER vesicles that is oriented perpendicular to the plane of division.
It serves in the assembling of the cell plate and the cell wall.
As the cell plate matures in the center of the phragmoplast, the phragmoplast and developing cell plate grow outward until they reach the of the dividing cell. See pages 64-67in Raven et al.
Spindle is persistent through mitosis.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or furrowing, just like bryophytes and vascular plants.

The flagellar root system of microtubules provides anchorage to the flagellum.
The multilayered structure is often associated with one of the flagellar roots.
The type of multilayered structure is often an important taxonomic character.
The flagellar root had multilayered structure of the Charophyceae is very similar to that found in the sperm of bryophytes and some vascular plants.

Class Chlorophyceae

There are approximately 350 genera and 2650 living species of chlorophyceans.

Mostly freshwater species.

They come in a wide variety of shapes and forms, including free-swimming unicellular species, colonies, non-flagellate unicells, filaments, and more.

Cytokinesis may be by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

When flagellate, the flagella are apical and equal in length, and directed forward.

They also reproduce in a variety of ways, though all have a haploid life cycle, in which only the zygote cell is diploid.

The zygote will often serve as a resting spore, able to lie dormant though potentially damaging environmental changes such as desiccation.

Chlamydomonas is motile unicellular chlorophyte.

Two equal flagella.
One chloroplast with a red photosensitive eyespot, or stigma, aids in the detection of light.
Chloroplast has a pyrenoid, which is typically surrounded by a shell of starch.
The cell wall is made of a carbohydrate and protein complex inside which is the plasma membrane; there is no cellulose in the cell wall.
Reproduction is both sexually and asexually.
See the Life Cycle diagram on page 331 in Ravel et al.

Volvox is a motile colony.

The colony consists of a hollow sphere called the spheroid, made up of a single layer of 500 to 60,000 vegetative, biflagellated cells that serve primarily in photosynthesis.
Specialized reproductive cells undergo repeated mitoses to form many-celled spheroids, which are released after producing an enzyme that dissolves the parental matrix.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.

Chlorococcum is a unicellular, non-motile chlorophyte.

Found in the soil.
Reproduces by forming biflagellated zoospores.
Sexual reproduction happens by the fusion of biflagellated gametes, which fuse in pairs to form zygotes.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Hydrodictyon is a non-motile colony.

The individual cells are cylindrical and initially uninucleated and eventually becoming multinucleated.
The cells form a hollow cylinder.
At maturity, the cells contain a large, central vacuole surrounded by the cytoplasm containing the nuclei and a large reticulate chloroplast with numerous pyrenoids.
It reproduces asexually through the formation of many uninucleated, biflagellated zoospores.
The zoospores are not released but form an arrangement within the parent cell, then lose their flagella and form the components of a mini-net.
Sexual reproduction is isogamous and meiosis is zygotic.

There are also filamentous and parenchymatous Chlorophyceae, e.g. Oedogonium, Stigeoclonium, and Fritschiella.

Class Ulvophyceae

Mostly marine algae with a few representatives in fresh water.

Filamentous septate, filamentous coenocytic (siphonous) or thalloid

Filamentous species have large multinucleate cells separated by septa; some may be netlike others straight chains. They have a netlike chloroplast.
Siphonous algae are characterized by very large, branched, coenocytic cells
Thalloid species have a single nucleus and chloroplast.

Majority has one plane of division, unlike the Ulva with three planes

Spindle and nuclear envelope persist through mitosis.

Flagellated cells may have two, four or many flagella directed forward

Alternation of generations with a haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte.

They have sporic meiosis or a diploid, dominant life history involving gametic meiosis.

Cladophora is a filamentous septate ulvophyte.

It forms large blooms in fresh water.
There are both marine and fresh water species of Cladophora.
Each cell is multinucleated and has one single, peripheral, net-like chloroplast with many pyrenoids. Marine species have an alternation of isomorphic generations.
Most of the fresh water species do not have an alternation of generations.

Ulva consists of a two-cell thick flat thallus that may grow up to a meter in length.
It is known as sea lettuce.
Ulva is anchored to the substrate by a holdfast produced by extensions of the cells at its base.
The cells of the thallus are uninucleate and have one chloroplast.
Ulva is anisogamous and has an alternation of isomorphic generations.

Codium and Halimeda are examples of siphonous marine algae.

Very large, coenocytic cells that are rarely septate characterize siphonous algae.
Cell walls are only produced during reproduction.
Siphonous green algae are diploid, with gametes being the only haploid stage.
Halimeda has calcified cell walls.

Examples to study:
Thalloid: Ulva.
Siphonous: Acetabularia, Codium, Ventricaria, Halimeda.
Filamentous septate: Cladophora.

Class Charophyceae

Growth habit may be unicellular, filamentous, colonial or thalloid (parenchymatous).

Considered closely related to plants due to structural, biochemical and genetic similarities.

The orders Coleochaetales and Charales have plant-like characteristics. These include:

Asymmetrical flagellated cells always have two flagella.
Breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis
Persistent spindles or phragmoplast at cytokinesis.
Presence of phytochrome, flavonoids and chemical precursors of the cuticle.
Other molecular features.

Spirogyra is an unbranched, filamentous charophyte.

Found in fresh water, often forming blooms.
Cells uninucleate.
Filaments are surround by a watery sheath.
Chloroplasts one or more, flat ribbon-like with numerous pyrenoids.
Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation.
There are no flagellated cells at any stage of its life cycle.
Sexual reproduction takes place through the formation of a conjugation tube.
The cytoplasm of one cells migrates to the other cell and function as isogametes.
A thick wall of sporopollenin surrounds the zygote.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Desmids are a large group of fresh water charophytes.

Lack flagellated cells.
Desmid cells consist of two sections of semi-cells joined by a narrow constriction.
Sexual reproduction is similar to Spirogyra.

Two orders of Charophyceae, the Coleochaetales and the Charales, resemble bryophytes and vascular plants.

They have plant-like microtubular phragmoplast operating during cytokinesis.
They are oogamous and their sperm are ultrastructurally similar to those of bryophytes.

Morphological and molecular studies indicate that an early basal split in the green algae gave rise to a chlorophyte clade containing most of the green algae, and a streptophyte clade that includes the Coleochaetales and Charales, zygnematalean green algae, and land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants).


Include branched filamentous and discoid genera.
Growth occurs at the apex or peripheral cells, and the plant is anchored in mud or silt by translucent rhizoids.
Coleochaete has uninucleate vegetative cells that each contains one large chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid.
It reproduces asexually by zoospores that are formed singly within cells.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
The zygotes remain attached to the parental thallus, which stimulate the growth of a layer of cells that covers the zygotes.
These parental cells have wall ingrowths are believed to function in nutrient transport between gametophyte and sporophyte.


The thallus in some stoneworts is encrusted with white lime, giving a crusty texture (hence the name brittlewort).
The Charales exhibit apical growth.
The thallus is differentiated into nodal and internodal regions.
The nodal regions have plasmodesmata.
Sperms are produced in multicellular antheridia.
Eggs are produced in oogonia enclosed by several long, tubular, twisted dells.
Sperms are the only flagellated cells in their life cycles.
Zygotes are surround by sporopollenin.

Examples to study:

Filamentous: Spirogyra, desmids.
Thalloid: Coleochaete.
Branched filamentous: Chara

Division Rhodophyta

Red algae are mostly marine organisms found in tropical and warm waters. Fewer than 100 species occur in fresh water. Some occur in cooler regions of the world.

Many species are found in very deep water.

There are 4100 to 6000 known species.

Red algae are mostly structurally complex multicellular organisms with very few species unicellular or microscopic filaments.

They may grow attached to the substrate, submerged vegetation and a few are free floating.

Unique Features Of Cells

Their cell wall lack plasmodesmata but they have pit connections. It is not known if these pits are used for intercellular transport.

Red algae do not produce flagellated cells, and lack centrioles.

Most red algae cell walls are made of cellulose microfibrils that are densely interwoven and are held together by mucilage.

The mucilage is a sulfonated polymer of galactose such as agar and carageenan.

Some species called coralline algae, deposit CaCO3 in their walls.

Coralline algae play an important role in coral reef building.

Many produce toxic terpenoids that deter herbivores.

Food reserves are stored as floridean starch in granules.

Floridean starch resembles glycogen.

Chloroplasts are reddish (rhodoplasts) and contain chlorophyll a, α and β-carotene, accessory water-soluble pigments called phycobilins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin).

These pigments absorb well green and blue-green wavelengths that penetrate deep into the water.
Chloroplast chemicals resemble those found in cyanobacteria and may have originated from this group by endosymbiosis.

Complicated Life Histories

Many reproduce asexually by discharging spores, called monospores, into the water.

All red algae have complex life cycles, reproduce sexually and have no flagellated stages.

Gametophyte, carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte.

The simplest form of sexual reproduction involves the alternation of a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte.

The gametophyte produces spermatangia (sing. spermatangium) that release nonmotile
The female gamete or egg is produced in the carpogonium, on a same gametophyte.
The carpogonium develops a protuberance called the trichogyne for the reception of the spermatia.
The spermatium fuses with the trichogyne and the nucleus travels to the female nucleus and fuses with it.
The resultant diploid zygote then produces a few diploid carpospores, which are release into the water.
Carpospores produce sporophytes that form haploid spores, which in turn produce new gametophytes.

In some red algae, the zygote produces a carposporophyte generation, which remains attached to the parent gametophyte.

The carposporophyte divides mitotically and eventually produces carpospores.
The carpospores are released and settle onto a substrate, and grow into separate diploid sporophytes.

In many red algae, the diploid zygote is transferred to another cell of the gametophyte called the auxiliary cell where it proliferates into many carpospores.

The carpospores produce a new generation called the tetrasporophyte.
Meiosis occurs I in specialized cells of the tetrasporophyte, called the tetrasporangia.
Each tetraspore germinates into a gametophyte.

Division Phaeophyta

Phaeophytes are also known as brown algae

It is an entirely marine group especially abundant in temperate and cold waters.

Common in the intertidal and subtidal zones; dominant alga of rocky shores.

About 1,500 species.

The Thallus

Size - few are microscopic, most much larger - up to 60 m. Larger forms with complex structure.

There are no known unicellular or colonial representatives of this group.

The simplest form of plant is a branched, filamentous thallus (pl. thalli): a relatively undifferentiated vegetative body.

The thalli range in complexity from simple branched filaments to aggregation of branched filaments called pseudoparenchyma.

Adjacent cells are connected by plasmodesmata without desmotubules connecting the ER.


Cells contain numerous disk-shaped, golden-brown plastids that are similar both biochemically and structurally to those of chrysophytes and diatoms.

Chlorophyll a and c (no Chlorophyll b), ß-carotene, fucoxanthin and other xanthophylls.

Food reserves are typically complex polysaccharides, sugars and higher alcohols and sometimes fats.
Glucose and mannitol are polymerized together as laminarin.
Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar-alcohol; it is linked together with glucose in a beta-1,3 linkage.

The principal carbohydrate reserve is laminarin and true starch is absent.

There are two groups based on the presence or absence of pyrenoids.


Kelps (Macrocystis and Nereocystis) and rockweeds have a highly differentiated bodies

The walls are made of cellulose and algin, an alginic acid, a long-chained heteropolysaccharide.
Some have stem-like, root-like, leaf-like organs.
Since they do not have vascular systems, these structures are not true stems, roots, or leaves. Termed rhizoid, holdfast, stalk or stipe, and blade.
Kelps have a meristematic region between the stipe and the blade.
Sargassum and Fucus grow from repeated divisions from a single apical cell.
Some species have floatation bladders.
Some free-floating species have lost the holdfast.

Some of the kelps have modified elongated cells in the center of the stipe that are capable of conducting carbohydrates from the blades near the water surface to the lower parts of the alga.

Some brown algae have evolved sieve tubes comparable to those found in food-conducting tissue of vascular plants. These are called trumpet cells.

Sieve tube elements are joined end-on-end by the sieve plates.

Of great economic importance: fertilizer, food especially in Japan, source of algin - stabilizer & moisture retainer in many products such as ice cream, cake frosting, paint, pharmaceuticals, processing of natural and synthetic rubber.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle involves an alternation of generation, and meiosis occurs during spore formation (sporic meiosis).

The ends of the branches are called receptacles and are swollen with large deposits of hydrophilic compounds. Scattered over the surface of the receptacles are small openings that lead to cavities called conceptacles. Gametangia develop in the conceptacles.

The gametophytes of the primitive brown algae produce reproductive structures called plurilocular gametangia. They may function as male or female gametangia or produce flagellated haploid spores that give rise to new gametophytes.

The diploid sporophyte produces both plurilocular and unilocular sporangia.
The plurilocular sporangia produce diploid zoospores that produce diploid sporophytes.
Meiosis takes place in the unilocular sporangia producing haploid zoospores that germinate to produce haploid gametophytes.

Zoospores have tinsel and whip flagella.

Some groups (e.g. Fucus) do not form spores and have a gametic life cycle without alternation of generations.

Phylum Bacillariophyta

An ancient group that appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago, and became abundant in the fossil record about 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous.

Diatoms are unicellular or colonial organisms that form an important component of the phytoplankton.

They may count for as much as 25% of the primary production of the earth.

There may be as many as 100,000 species, some of the most diverse and abundant algae on earth.

Diatoms are the primary source of food for many marine animals; they provide essential carbohydrates, fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins to the consumers.

Diatoms live in both freshwater and marine habitats, but are especially abundant in cold marine waters.

Diatoms can also inhabit terrestrial habitats such as damp cliff faces, moist tree trunks and on the surfaces of buildings.

The Walls Of Diatoms Consist Of Two Halves

Cell wall in two parts known as frustules, are made of polymerized silica (SiO2  H2O, 95%) and carbohydrates especially pectin (5%).

The shell is composed of an upper and lower half, with the lower half fitting neatly within the upper, like a Petri dish.

The shell is highly ornamented and perforated with microscopic holes so precisely spaced that they are used commercially to test the resolution of expensive microscope lenses.

These holes connect the living protoplast with the external environment.

Freshwater forms are usually cylindrical in shape: pennate.
Marine species are usually spherical or circular: centric.

Chrysophytes form sometimes “brown blooms” in fresh and salt water.

Diatoms have chlorophyll a and c, and the golden-brown carotenoid fucoxanthin.

Two large chloroplasts are present in pennate diatoms, and many discoid chloroplasts in centric species.

Food is stored in the form of oils and chrysolaminarin, a soluble polysaccharide stored in vacuoles.

Some species are heterotrophic absorbing organic molecules from the environment. Other heterotrophs live symbiotically in foraminiferans.

Fossil frustules make the diatomaceous earths mined for use as filters, insulating material and abrasive polish.

Reproduction In Diatoms Is Mainly Asexual

Reproduction is usually asexual. Changes in the environment or critical small size triggers sexual reproduction.

Yellow-green algae

Some phycologists as a division or class consider the yellow-green algae different from the chrysophytes. Others include them in the chrysophytes.

They have a variety of body shapes: unicellular, filamentous, siphonous or large multicellular body form.
They have chlorophyll c.
Asexual reproduction occurs by isogamy in Vaucheria.
Sexual reproduction consists of biflagellated sperms and a multinucleated egg.
The zygote breaks off and after a period of dormancy germinates forming a new “tube” filled with haploid nuclei.

Division Chrysophyta

Also know as the golden-brown algae.

Chrysophytes are photosynthetic, unicellular colonial organisms; some plasmodia, filamentous and tissue-like forms. About 1000 known species.

Abundant in freshwater and marine environments worldwide.

Chrysophytes contain chlorophylls a and c, and accessory pigment fucoxanthin, a carotenoid.

Cells usually have one or two chloroplasts.

They store food in a vacuole in the form of polysaccharide chrysolaminarin, which is stored in a vacuole usually found in the posterior of the cell.

Some species are heterotrophic ingesting bacteria, algal cells and organic particles.

Some species have cell wall containing cellulose and impregnated with minerals. Others are without walls. One group has silica plates on the cell surface.

Reproduction is mostly asexual by means of zoospores with unequal flagella of similar structure.

Some species can reproduce sexually.

Resting cysts are formed as a result of sexual reproduction at the end of the growing season.

In many ways, golden algae are biochemically and structurally similar to brown algae.

Division Dinophyta

The dinophyta are also known as dinoflagellates.

Molecular evidence indicates that the dinoflagellates are closely related to ciliate protozoa such as Paramecium and Vorticella, and to apicomplexans, a group of parasitic flagellates whose cells contain a non-pigmented plastid, e.g. Plasmodium that causes malaria.

Apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and others form a group called alveolates.

Most are unicellular biflagellates.

About 4000 known species, most of which are members of the marine phytoplankton.

Their flagella beat in two grooves, one encircles the cell and the other extends lengthwise.

The nonmotile dinoflagellates produce flagellated cells that beat in grooves.

Their chromatin is always condensed into chromosomes.

Many are covered with cellulose plates forming a theca.

About half of the dinoflagellates lack photosynthetic apparatus and feed by ingesting food particles or absorbing dissolved organic compounds.

They have chlorophyll a and c, β- and γ-carotenes, a carotenoid called peridinin,  fucoxanthin, a yellow-brown carotenoid, and other xanthins..

Some pigmented flagellates carry out photosynthesis and also feed by absorbing carbon compound through a protruded peduncle; this is called myxotrophy.

When dinoflagellates are symbionts, they lack theca, e.g. zooxanthellae of giant clams, corals, worms, etc.

Dinoflagellates store their food as oils and starch.

Under adverse periods of low nutrient levels, dinoflagellates form resting cysts that are carried by currents.

Reproduction is mostly asexual but sexual reproduction has been observed in some species.

Some species produce bioluminescence and powerful neurotoxins that are accumulated by fish and mollusks.

They have a characteristic type of nuclear and cell division.


Phylum Oomycota

Oomycetes is a distinct heterotrophic group of about 700 species.

Unicellular to highly branched, coenocytic and filamentous forms.

Oomycetes are either saprobes or symbionts.

They inhabit aquatic environments: marine, freshwater or moist terrestrial habitats.

Their cell wall is made of cellulose.

Their food reserve is in the form of glycogen.

Asexual reproduction is by means of motile zoospores, which have the characteristic two flagella of heterokonts.

Sexual reproduction is oogamous: one gamete large and nonmotile, the other small and motile.

Eggs are produced in the oogonia.
The antheridium contains many male nuclei.
The fertilized egg forms a thick-walled zygote called the oospore.
The oospore serves as a resting stage during stressful conditions.

Oomycetes are also called water molds, white rusts and downy mildew.

Water Molds Are Aquatic Oomycetes.

Abundant in fresh water.

Mostly saprophytic and a few parasitic including species that cause diseases to fish and fish eggs.

Species may be homothallic or heterothallic.

Saprolegnia and Achlya are common water molds that reproduce sexually and asexually.

Some Terrestrial Oomycetes Are Important Plant Pathogens

Terrestrial oomycetes produce motile zoospores when water is available.

Terrestrial oomycetes are important plant pathogens; the genus Phytophthora is particularly destructive to plants.

They attack important crops like grapes, pineapples, onions, strawberries, apples, citrus fruits, cacao, etc.

Phytophthora cinnamomi killed millions of avocado trees in southern California, and destroyed thousands of hectares of Eucalyptus timberland in Australia.
Phytophthora ramorum was the cause of the disease called “the sudden oak death.” It attacks many species of oaks and also 26 other species of plants including firs and coastal redwoods.
The great potato famine in Ireland (1846) was caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.
A gene has been found in a species of wild potato, Solanum ulbocastanum, from Mexico, that is resistant to potato blight. The resistant gene has now been inserted in the commercial potatoes, Solanum tuberosum.
The genus Pythium attacks and rot seeds in the wild (preemergence damping-off) and seedling (postemergence damping-off)

Before a diatom can undergo mitosis, it must be living in an environment with sufficient silicon to allow it to construct a new shell.
The diploid protoplast undergoes typical mitosis within the shell, and then the two-shell halves separate.
One protoplast gets the top half, and the other gets the bottom half.
In either case, the protoplast then secretes a new "bottom" to the "Petri dish"(i.e., a new half fitting inside the old half).
This means that after every mitotic division, one of the resulting diatoms is smaller than the original. This can go on for several generations.
Eventually, the protoplast inside the tiny shell undergoes meiosis rather than mitosis. Four haploid gametes are released from the shell, which is discarded.
When two gametes meet and fuse, the resulting diploid cell is called an auxospore (zygote).
The auxospore grows into a normal size of the species.
It then secretes a silica case of the original size...and the cycle begins anew.
Sexual reproduction in centric diatoms is usually oogamous, and in pennate diatoms non-motile isogamous.

Division Euglenophyta.

Mostly unicellular fresh water organisms; one colonial genus.

Molecular evidence indicates that earlier euglenoids were phagocytic.

About one third of euglenoids contain chloroplasts; their chloroplasts resemble those of the green algae and suggest that they were formed from endosymbiotic green algae.

About two thirds of the genera are colorless heterotrophs that depend on particle feeding and absorption of dissolved organic compounds.

They are mostly freshwater organisms living in waters rich in organic compounds and particles.

Cell structure:

Cell membrane, with pellicle immediately beneath the membrane.
Lack cell wall; one genus has a wall-like covering made of manganese and iron minerals.
The pellicle is made of  protein strips arranged in the form of a helix; it may be rigid or flexible.
Single flagellum for movement coming from the reservoir, and a second non-emergent flagellum.
Flagellar swelling and the stigma or eyespot makes the light-sensing system.
Contractile vacuole used in maintaining water balance.
Pyrenoids are found in chloroplasts. It is a region where rubisco is found and paramylon, a polysaccharide is stored.
Pigments present: chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and several xanthophylls.
Euglenoids grown in absence of light have been known to lose their chloroplasts and become heterotrophic.
Reproduction in euglenoids is asexual, by mitotic cell division. Sexual reproduction is unknown.
The nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis in a way similar to the fungi.
About 900 species are known.
An intact mitotic nuclear envelope is probably a primitive condition. The break down of the nuclear membrane is probably a derived condition that appeared after euglenoids separated from the main stack of protists.



The Ecology of the algae is not found in your textbook.

Algae are dominant in salt and fresh water habitat.

Everywhere they grow, they play a role similar to that of plants in terrestrial habitats.

Along rocky shores, the large and more complex members of the brown, red and green algae grow forming bands that reflect the ability of the seaweeds to withstand exposure.

Seaweeds in this intertidal zone are exposed twice a day to large fluctuations of humidity, salinity and light, in addition to pounding action of the surf and forceful, abrasive water motions.

Polar seaweeds endure months of darkness under the sea ice.

Seaweeds are the food source to a host of herbivores and parasites.

Large beds of seaweeds provide a safe habitat for many aquatic organisms, e.g. kelp beds off the coast of California.

Plankton refers to all suspended drifting organisms found in all bodies of water.

Planktonic algae and cyanobacteria constitute the phytoplankton found in oceans and fresh water.
Heterotrophic plankton and usually swimming microorganisms are called zooplankton.
Bacteria and some heterotrophic protists form the bacterioplankton.

Phytoplankton is found at the base of the food chain.

Colonial and single-celled chrysophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae are the most important organisms at the base of the food chain in freshwater habitats.
Unicellular and colonial haptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms are the primary producers of the ocean.

In both marine and freshwater habitats, phytoplankton populations are kept in check by seasonal climatic changes, nutrient limitation and predation.

Phytoplankton is the major producers of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Phytoplankton reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by fixing it during photosynthesis.

Phytoplankton is important in the deposition of CaCO3 deposits on the ocean floor.

The CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the calcification process is replaced by atmospheric CO2

Several types of multicellular algae are important members of coral reefs and deposit a substantial amount of calcium compound important in coral building.

Some haptophyte protists produce substantial amounts of sulfur oxides that are added to the atmosphere and reflect sunlight helping to maintain a cooler temperature.

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