Wednesday, March 31, 2010


1. Is my home suitable for the installation of a solar electric system?
Answer: Almost any building with a sunny roof which faced in a southerly direction is suitable for installation. The closer the roof is to true south the better, although roofs which face east or west work well with an annual performance drop of about 15%, which means the owner has to install a few more modules to make up for the off-south orientation.

2. How big a system do I need?
Answer: The size of the system depends on the amount of southerly roof area one has on their roof. Typically, a 2 kilowatt system employs about 200 square feet of roof space, a 5 kilowatt system 500 square feet of roof space, and a 10 kilowatt system about 1000 square feet of roof space. The NJ Clean Energy Program allows the owner to generate 100% of their historical demand, providing they have adequate roof space. Normally, systems are sized to meet 25-75% of their total annual electric demand, with the balance of their electricity purchased from the electric utility.

3. How much money can I save?
Answer: Conservatively speaking, without hyping the performance of these systems, a 2 kilowatt system will generate (save) 200 kilowatt hours of electricity per month, a 5 kilowatt system will generate 500 kilowatt hours of electricity per month, and a 10 kilowatt system 1000 kilowatt hours of electricity per month. The figures reflect the average generation per month over a period of twelve months, and take into account lower winter and higher summer generation. At today’s rates, a kilowatt hour costs from 10 cents to 14 cents per kilowatt hour, depending on the time of the year and which electric utility you buy from. On the average, a 5 kilowatt photovoltaic system will save about $ 50-60 per month on your electric bill, and more in the years ahead as electric rates increase. It is a great hedge against utility rate increases. You can use the Clean Power Estimator from the NJCEP website to estimate the savings at your home. The figures outlined above take into account a system facing south and no shade from nearby trees or obstructions.

Additional money savings accrue monthly through Solar Renewable Energy Credits, called "SREC's". The value of these SREC's will change over time, but at this time are expected to be from 10 cents to 20 cents per kilowatt hour of solar electricity generated. These SREC's are purchased by electric utilities or aggregators who combine lots of smaller systems and sell them in blocks to the electric utilities. The reason these SREC's are valuable is because they are added to the electricity savings to essentially double the income from your system, and can halve the payback period for the purchase of a solar photovoltaic system. The electric utilities are required by state law, New Jersey's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which requires electric utilities in New Jersey to provide a small percentage of electric power sold in the state to come from renewable resources such as solar, wind, or landfill gas. This helps mitigate environmental pollution which is produced as a result of conventional electricity generation. A portion of the RPS must come from renewable resource generation WITHIN New Jersey from residential, commercial and industrial qualifying facilities. Hence the utilities need to buy SREC's from New Jersey homes and businesses. For additional information on SREC's, please see our site.

4. What is the procedure for participating in the NJ Clean Energy Program?

Contact an installer and have them perform a free site survey of your home. At this time the installer will take a compass reading of the site and look for any shading which would diminish performance of the system. The installer will also look at your electric bill, measure the roof, and let you know about how big a system will fit on your roof, within your expected budget range. The person performing the site survey will also be able to answer questions on placement of solar modules and inverters, wire runs , and connections to your main circuit breaker box. They will then take this information back to the office and a proposal will be written and mailed to the owner with all the technical forms and program application filled out.
2. When the owner decides to go ahead with the installation of the system, they mail the application, technical worksheet, and basic site plan to the administrator of the NJ Clean Energy Program. They will receive written approval of their system along with the rebate amount which will be paid at the end of the installation. The rebate “reservation” is good for six months, the time period in which the job should be completed.
3. When the owner has received the go-ahead from the NJCEP, they should send in the signed conract and deposit with their lot and block number. An electrical and building permit will be pulled before work can begin. Jersey Solar takes care of all permitting and submits the applicable electrical drawings and roof loading specifications to the local electrical and building code officials. Once the permits are approved, the installation is ready to begin.
4. When the installation is completed, usually in 2-4 days, the Installer explains operation of the system to the homeowner and calls for the local electrical and building inspection. Once the System passes the local code inspections, the Final Rebate Application is sent in, along with proof of purchase,proof of successful local code compliance, an amended technical worksheet if any changes are made, and a copy of the interconnect agreement. When the final rebate application and forms are received by the NJCEP, another inspector from the NJCEP will come out and make another inspection, making sure that the System passed the local inspection, has no or minimal shading, has the correct inverter and the correct number of modules and is installed according to program guidelines with good workmanship. The rebate is then mailed out. An interconnection agreement is also drawn up with the help of the installer, which is submitted to the utility. Upon utility review, approval and acceptance, the System is officially interconnected and net metering begins, allowing the Owner to interconnect with the electric grid.

5. How much are the rebates and do we have to come up with all the money at the end of the installation?
Answer: Presently, the rebates are $5.50/peak watt or 70% of the cost of the System, whichever is less. The rebate amount can be assigned to the installer, which is received after approval of the system. This way, the Owner only has to come up with 30% of the cost of the system, in two payments of 15%, the first a deposit and the second upon completion of the job. There is also no states sales tax on solar in NJ.

6. Will solar electric modules detract from the “look” of my home?
Answer: Not at all. The modules are installed at the same angle of the roof and look like skylights. They have glass tops with blue or black crystalline cells underneath, and can actually enhance the look of the home. In addition, solar electric systems add value to the home, so a $30,000 system with a rebate of $ 21,000 and a net cost of $9,000 will add at least $9000 to the value of the home upon resale. The electrical savings become dividends.

7. How are the solar modules attached to the roof, and what effect do they have on the roof shingles?
Answer: The aluminum support structure which is underneath the modules are attached directly into the roof rafters of the home.
They are guaranteed to withstand 90-125 mile per hour winds and the weight of the modules is evenly distributed. The modules place a distributed load of less than 3 pounds per square foot on the roof, which is well within roof loading requirements of local building codes. The modules will actually protect the roof shingles under them from the sun, which is the force which cause roof shingles to dry up and curl. In addition, the solar modules block hot summer sun from hitting the shingles, which leads to cooler attic temperatures and decreased cooling costs.
An ashphalt-based sealant is placed between the shingle and aluminum support structure to prevent leaks from occuring.

8. What are some of the environmental savings associated with the installation of a solar photovoltaic system?
Answer: The annual emission offset for a 4 kW system is:
a) 4 pounds of oxides of nitrogen
b) 18,000 pounds of carbon dioxide
c) This is the equivalent of driving your car 22,600 miles per year
d) The carbon dioxide absorbed by 2 acres of trees.
As you can see, the environmental savings, when added to the obvious monetary savings, makes solar photovoltaic systems a good investment for the homeowner and society. In fact, the NJ Clean Energy Program is funded by a Society Benefit Charge (SBC), which is a tiny charge of about 10 cents per month for the average residential customer on their electric bill. That is to say, that the State of NJ has decided that there is a benefit to society in the installation of solar photovoltaic systems throughout the state. When one adds up all the electricity used within the state, in the residential, commercial, and industrial sector, it comes to about $30 million dollars a year in rebate incentives. These rebates are set to expire in 2008, not withstanding a challenge to the program by those seeking to end or diminish it by the elimination of the Clean Energy Fund.

9 . What is net metering and are all buildings eligible for the NJ Clean Energy Program?
Net metering is the term given which allows your utility meter to literally “spin backwards” when you are producing more electricity than you are using. During the day, especially for homeowners, the occupants of the home might be in school or at work while the photovoltaic system is making more than what the house is presently using. The excess electricity then spins the meter backward and the utility gives you credit AT THE RETAIL RATE for the power they buy back from you. This credit shows up on your monthly electric bill as your meter actually registers the backfeed amount. The meter spins forward (you purchase) at night, during rainy weather, or when your electric demand exceeds the amount of power you are generating on the roof at that given moment. For instance, if you are generating 2000 watts of power but only using 1000 watts, you use your own 1000 watts first and sell the excess 1000 watts back to the utility at retail rate. If you are using 2000 watts and only generating 1000 watts at the moment, you use your 1000 watts you generated and only have to purchase the additonal 1000 watts from the utility. This amount is annualized at the end of the year, especially during some months when it is possible to have a negative electric bill. It is state law that the utility must interconnect and net meter your system provided your system passes the local electrical inspection (National Electric Code)and meets the utility safety requirments as outlined in the law. A signed copy of the interconnection and net metering agreement is entered into by the Owner and the utility and is binding and transferrable, provided the safety requirements are maintained.

10. How many systems have you installed under the NJCEP and do you have referrals?
Answer: We have installed about 60 residential systems, 45 of which have been direct line tie systems(no backup power) and about 15 line tie systems with battery backup(uninterruptible power supply). The battery backup systems provide backup emergency power for lighting, heat, well pump, refrigeration, stereo/tv/computer circuits, etc. With these systems, these circuits stay energized, for a period of 1-7 days, when the electric grid goes away(utility power is down).When the utility power comes back, the battery backup goes back to “sleep’ and is ready for the next power outage. On direct line tie systems without battery backup, the solar modules stop making power so the lineman working on the pole nearby is protected against electricity backfed into their lines. Battery backup systems are more expensive, and the additional cost is not covered by rebates. However, if you are in an area with frequent power outages, have critical needs, or are simply tired of being “powerless” and inconvenienced during a utility outage, then this system offers an alternative to the direct line tie system. The transfer is automatic, about 27 milliseconds, so you do not need a manual transfer switch as you would with a backup gas or oil generator. We have installed photovoltaic systems throughout the state and can provide referrals from customers close to you.

11. How do I know my system is working?
Answer: All photovoltaic systems we install have a kilowatt hour meter which shows how much the system is collecting at that moment and also totalizes the kilowatts in memory storage. This way, the owner can easily find out how much they have generated daily/monthly/annually and can monitor their system’s performance. There is also a visible backfeed number which shows up on the meter so the Owner will know how much electricity they sold back to the utility. These meters are very much like the odometer on an automobile.
SOLAR serdar

Monday, March 29, 2010


Welcome to the Northwest Solar Expo

No matter what your budget is there is a clean energy solution available today. From utility portfolio options, to energy efficiency, to generating your own clean energy, a solution within your budget exists today to respond to the energy concerns we are all facing.

Join us at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland and check out the latest clean energy options for your home or business.

Conference & Expo Mission:
To educate renewable energy professionals as well as business owners and residential customers interested in clean energy solutions.

The 5th Annual Northwest Solar Expo & Clean Technology Showcase 2010, featuring three days of Professional Solar Training and certification also offers multiple networking opportunities for business professionals, installers, integrators and potential solar and clean energy customers to meet. The expo offers a unique local opportunity for companies to showcase products and services that can be implemented today.

Solar and clean energy activity is in the news everyday. This event brings together vibrant professionals, manufacturers, builders, along with government and non-profit agencies to train industry professionals and inform the general public on how they can take advantage of today's clean energy solutions.

Many of the Professional Solar Training Conference Courses are approved for NABCEP continuing education credits. The Solar Expo will offer workshops, exhibitors, and seminars to homeowners and business owners interested in clean energy solutions for their homes and buildings.
SOLAR serdar

Saturday, March 27, 2010


passive solar techniques and the climate issue
Passive solar homes are designed to get their heating and cooling needs from the sun, wind, trees, or from the windows and the materials used on the walls and roof of the house and the way they interact with the environment and landscape. Passive solar plans intend to dispense with furnaces, boilers or air-conditioning...

Passive solar techniques
To reach their goal, passive solar techniques rely on the...

- thermal storage or reflectance of the materials used in their walls, floor and roof;
- building's sun exposure (which depends on its shape, axis, layout);
- natural ventilation (dependent on windows, windbreaks, orientation of the building);
- proper shape and orientation of the house;
- advanced windows, skylights and venting elements and overhangs;
- appropriate colors (of the walls and roof…) and specific elements as sunrooms, wing walls, trombe walls, water walls, roof ponds, diffusing glazing materials;
- other elements dependent on design, architecture and landscaping.

In other words, passive solar homes use a set of passive solar heating techniques and passive cooling techniques.

A strategy for new homes
Passive solar techniques are mainly a set of strategies to implement while you are projecting a new home. It's impossible to apply most of them on existing homes: we can't change the orientation and shape of a home, or the materials used in their walls.

The use of mechanical and active techniques
The aim of solar passive cooling and heating is to get a natural cooling and heating. But doesn't collide with the use of "active" techniques such as fans or solar water heating. They are indispensable in many cases. An example: fans are indispensable in hot humid climates, where you can’t fight humidity through natural ventilation or other passive principles…

Passive solar house plans and climate
Most of the passive solar designs are geared towards heating and cooling in cold and temperate and dry climates.

Obviously, there are some general principles applicable in any climate: properly sized overhangs, principles of thermal and storage mass and reflectance, shading through trees…

But some principles or measures are very specific to some climates. The shading of trees can't be used extensively in cool and cold climates. That strategy should be analyzed with extreme care, according to specific micro climes and climate conditions. On the other hand, in hot and humid climates we should use some particular techniques, that we do not use in cold climates:

- orientation of the house to avoid the direct impact of sun, instead of the opposite;
- extended use of verandas and shade nettings;
- intense use of mechanical devices to control humidity, etc.

Each climate determines the final passive solar techniques, and your plan should reflect it. Some of the techniques are universal, but others are specific to some microclimates and climates zones.
SOLAR serdar

Tuesday, March 23, 2010



SOLAR serdar
About Renewable Energy
Key Descriptors
What is Renewable Energy?
Hydro Energy
Wind Energy
Solar Energy
Geothermal Energy
Ocean Energy
Key Descriptors
Canada, with its large landmass and diversified geography, has substantial renewable resources that can be used to produce energy; these resources include moving water, biomass, and wind, solar, geothermal and ocean energy.
Canada is a world leader in the production and use of energy from renewable resources. Renewable energy sources currently provide about 16% of Canada’s total primary energy supply.
Moving water is the most important renewable energy source in Canada, providing about 59 percent of Canada’s electricity. In fact, Canada is the second largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world.
Biomass is the second most important renewable energy source in Canada. The primary types of bioenergy include electricity and industrial heat from wood waste, space heating from firewood, and biofuels from agricultural crops.
While they are emerging sources, wind and solar energy are experiencing high growth rates.

What is Renewable Energy?
Renewable energy is energy obtained from natural resources that can be naturally replenished or renewed within a human lifespan, that is, the resource is a sustainable source of energy. Some natural resources, such as moving water, wind and sunshine, are not at risk of depletion from their use for energy production. Biomass, however, is a renewable resource only if its rate of consumption does not exceed its rate of regeneration.
A wide range of energy-producing technologies and equipment have been developed over time to take advantage of these natural resources. As a result, usable energy can be produced in the form of electricity, industrial heat, thermal energy for space and water conditioning, and transportation fuels.
With its large landmass and diversified geography, Canada has an abundance of renewable resources that can be used to produce energy. Canada is a world leader in the production and use of energy from renewable resources. Renewable energy resources currently provide about 16% of Canada’s total primary energy supply.
Hydroelectricity is by far the most important form of renewable energy produced in Canada. Bioenergy also makes an important contribution to Canada’s energy mix. Several emerging resources, such as wind and solar power, are making much smaller contributions but are experiencing high growth rates.

The natural flow of water in rivers offers kinetic power that can be transformed into usable energy. Early usages included mechanical power for transformation activities, such as milling and sawing, and for irrigation. As well, rivers have been used for transportation purposes, such as moving logs from forests to industrial centers.
Currently, hydroelectricity is the major form of usable energy produced from flowing water. To produce hydroelectricity, the water flow is directed at the blades of a turbine, making it spin, which causes an electrical generator connected to the turbine to spin as well and thus generate electricity.
The amount of energy extracted from flowing water depends on the volume of water and its speed. Usually, a hydroelectric station is built at a sharp incline or waterfall to take advantage of the speed gained by the water as a result of gravity. Dams are built at some locations to help regulate the flow of water and, therefore, the electricity generation.
Canada has many rivers flowing from mountainous areas toward its three bordering oceans. In 2006, Canada had 499 hydroelectric stations together capable of producing about 73 thousand megawatts (or million kilowatts). These stations include 360 small hydroelectric facilities, that is, facilities with a nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or less, and they together are capable of producing 3.4 thousand megawatts, which is about 5% of Canada’s total hydroelectric production capacity.
All the hydroelectric stations in Canada generated about 350 million megawatt-hours in 2006. This accounted for 59% of Canada’s total electricity production. Canada is the second largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world. In fact, hydroelectricity represents about 11% of Canada’s total primary energy supply.
Hydroelectric stations have been developed in Canada where the geography and hydrography were favourable, particularly in Quebec. Other areas producing large quantities of hydroelectricity include British Columbia, Ontario, Labrador and Manitoba. There still are significant untapped moving-water resources in Canada, for large-scale hydroelectric projects are currently under consideration in British Columbia, Manitoba, Labrador, Alberta, and Quebec. As well, there is potential for small- and medium-scale developments, particularly in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec.

Bioenergy comprises different forms of usable energy obtained from materials referred to as biomass. A biomass is a biological material in solid, liquid or gaseous form that has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Excluded from this definition is organic material that has been transformed over long periods of time by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum.
Several types of biomass can be used, with the proper technology and equipment, to produce energy. The most commonly used type of biomass is wood, either round wood or wood waste from industrial activities. Wood and wood waste can be combusted to produce heat used for industrial purposes, for space and water heating, or to produce steam for electricity generation. Through anaerobic digestion, methane can be produced from solid landfill waste or other biomass materials such as sewage, manure and agricultural waste. Sugars can be extracted from agricultural crops and, through distillation, alcohols can be produced for use as transportation fuels. As well, numerous other technologies exist or are being developed to take advantage of other biomass feedstock.
With its large landmass and active forest and agricultural industries, Canada has access to large and diversified biomass resources that can be used for energy production. Currently, bioenergy is the second most important form of renewable energy in Canada. In fact, bioenergy represents about 5 percent of Canada’s total primary energy.
Historically, the use of wood has been very important in Canada for space and water heating, as well as for cooking. It is still important today, as almost 10% of households use wood as a primary or secondary source for space heating. Every year, over 100 petajoules of energy from wood are consumed in the residential sector, representing about 8 percent of residential energy use.
The most important type of biomass in Canada is industrial wood waste, especially waste from the pulp and paper industry, which is used to produce electricity and steam. Every year, nearly 500 petajoules of bioenergy are used in the industrial sector. The pulp and paper industry is by far the largest industrial user of bioenergy, which accounts for more than half of the energy used in this industry.
At the end of 2006, Canada had 62 bioenergy power plants with a total electricity generating capacity of 1,652 megawatts, and most of this capacity was built around the use of wood biomass and spent pulping liquor, as well as landfill gas. In 2006, 7 million megawatt-hours of electricity were generated using wood and spent pulping liquor. Most of the biomass-fired capacity was found in provinces with significant forestry activities: British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and New Brunswick.
Biofuels – or fuels from renewable sources — are a growing form of bioenergy in Canada. The principal agriculture feedstock for producing ethanol, a gasoline substitute, includes corn, wheat and barley. Canada is a major world producer and exporter of these grains. As well, vegetable oils and animal fats can be used to produce biodiesel, a diesel substitute.
In 2006, the domestic production capacity of biofuels in Canada was approximately 600 million litres of ethanol and 100 million litres of biodiesel. The federal and provincial governments have announced several measures that should lead to the increased production and use of biofuels in the coming years.

Canada’s Bioenergy Installed Generating Capacity, by Province (2006, in megawatts)
Total biomass
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
British Columbia

Wind Power
The kinetic energy in wind can be converted into useful forms of energy such as mechanical energy or electricity. Wind energy has been harnessed for centuries to propel sailing vessels and turn grist mills and water pumps. Today, wind is used increasingly to generate electricity. Turbines with large propellers are erected on ‘wind farms’ located in strategic areas that have good wind regimes and that are in proximity to existing electrical grids. Wind energy is captured only when the wind speed is sufficient to move the turbine blades, but not in high winds when the turbine might be damaged if operated.
Canada has large areas with excellent wind resources and therefore a significant potential for the expansion of wind-generated power. Some of the highest quality areas are offshore and along coastlines. No offshore wind farms have been built in Canada yet, and the development of coastal wind farms is limited because most of Canada’s coastline is in remote regions, away from the existing electrical grid. There are also high quality areas inland at different locations across Canada, including the southern Prairies and along the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Installed wind power capacity in Canada has expanded rapidly in recent years and is forecasted to continue to grow at a rapid pace due to increased interest from electricity producers and governmental initiatives. As of December 31, 2007, Canada had 1,400 wind turbines operating on 85 wind farms for a total installed capacity of 1,846 megawatts, compared with only 60 wind turbines, 8 wind farms and 23 megawatts a decade earlier. The provincial leaders in wind power capacity are Alberta, Ontario and Quebec.

Solar Energy
Solar energy is energy from the sun in the form of radiated heat and light. The sun’s radiant energy can be used to provide lighting and heat for buildings and to produce electricity. Historically, solar energy has been harnessed through passive solar technologies. Typically, these involve the strategic location of buildings and various elements of these buildings, such as windows, overhangs and thermal masses. Such practices take advantage of the sun for lighting and space heating to significantly reduce the use of electrical or mechanical equipment. Solar energy can be harnessed only during the day and only if the sunlight is not blocked by clouds, buildings or other obstacles.
Today, two active solar technologies that involve electrical or mechanical equipment are becoming more common. First, solar collectors or panels are used to heat water or ventilation air for use in buildings. Second, solar photovoltaic technology uses solar cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity.
The potential for solar energy varies across Canada. The potential is lower in coastal areas, due to increased cloud coverage, and is higher in the central regions. The solar potential varies even more around the globe. In general, many Canadian cities have a solar potential that is comparable internationally with that of many major cities. For instance, about half of Canada’s residential electricity requirements could be met by installing solar panels on the roofs of residential buildings.
Canada’s use of solar energy has increased in recent years, although it remains relatively small in terms of market penetration. Installed capacity for solar thermal power has seen average annual growth of 17 percent since 1998, reaching 290 megawatts of thermal power in 2005. Installed capacity for solar photovoltaic power has grown by 27 percent annually since 1993, reaching 25.8 megawatts in 2007, of which 89% are in off-grid applications.

Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy can be captured from the heat stored beneath the earth’s surface or from the absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. In the first instance, geothermal energy can be captured from naturally occurring underground steam and be used to produce electricity. In the second instance, heating and cooling can be achieved by taking advantage of the temperature differential between outside air and the ground or groundwater.
Canada’s known geothermal steam resource is limited, but electricity generation projects are being considered. Furthermore, approximately 3,150 ground-source heat pump units were installed in residential, commercial and institutional buildings across Canada in 2006.

Ocean Energy
The ocean is a vast source of energy that can be harnessed to produce different forms of usable energy. For instance, technologies have been developed to convert the energy of ocean waves and tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. However, a number of technical, economic and environmental barriers remain and, as a result, ocean energy is currently not a widely exploited energy source.
Being landlocked only along its southern border, much of Canada is surrounded by oceans, meaning it has access to a significant energy potential. Currently, Canada has a tidal power plant in Nova Scotia with a generating capacity of 20 megawatts of electricity. Recently, a technology demonstration project using a Canadian designed tidal current turbine with a generating capacity of 0.065 megawatts was installed in British Columbia’s offshore. Additional tidal current demonstration projects are being considered.
SOLAR serdar



SOLAR serdar
Solar Power
"Is solar power better than fossil fuels?"
The sun’s energy is so powerful that in just 1 hour the amount of energy that falls on the earth equals the amount used by the world’s population in a whole year.
Most of the sun’s energy transforms to processes such as heat and photosynthesis, which are the driving factors behind our weather and biological systems. But it can also be captured and converted into electricity.
Solio has been designed to harness the sun’s energy, shortening the process of transforming it into electricity by using photovoltaic cells (PVs). PVs convert sunlight into electricity that can be used immediately. The process is clean, fast, noiseless, and—thanks to Solio—easily portable. Here’s how it works. Light from the sun hits the solar cells, exciting electrons within the cell. Some of them break free, and are channeled through a conductive metal strip to create an electric current. This current can either be stored in a battery or used directly in the form of electricity. The stronger the sunlight and the more rays that hit the cell, the more electricity is generated.
More info at
Now consider fossil fuels. These are formed by utilizing solar energy that has been stored in plants that grew millions of years ago.
After these plants have been buried and compressed under tons of earth, they are transformed into oil. This oil is then extracted and refined, using heavy machinery that pollutes the air. The oil must then be delivered to its destination, creating a need for more polluting machinery.
Ultimately, the burning of this fuel for power has a negative impact on the delicate climatic and environmental balance of our world.
The fossil fuel process takes a long time, and will eventually run out. But as long as the sun burns, we will have the cleaner and more portable option of PVs.
SOLAR serdar