nedjelja, 5. veljače 2012.

How to power more than 260 houses

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources 
 Shane’s Castle Green Generation

Shane’s Castle on the shores of Lough Neagh near Randalstown in Co. Antrim is the family seat of the O’Neills of Clandeboy. The Demesne is one of the most beautiful and well maintained in Ireland with a rich variety of flora and fauna, including a lovely herd of fallow deer that have been resident there for many years. The Castle is in ruins due to a devastating fire in 1816 but the remaining structure, including a unique Camellia House designed by John Nash, is still a prominent feature in the landscape. A recent and fitting addition to the Demesne is an Archimedean Screw hydro turbine, ancient technology but with a 21st century application.
The O’Neill family are well known for their preservation and conservation and love of nature and the environment and this Archimedean Screw hydro project complements their environmental initiatives very well indeed. Rated at 214 kilowatts the hydro turbine is predicted to save an impressive 840 tonnes or more of Carbon Dioxide (CO2emissions annually by generating clean, green electricity and will make a major contribution to the Demesne’s green philosophy.
This project is a reinstatement of an old hydro system that was installed circa 1900 that was used to power the estate before mains electricity was introduced to Shane’s Castle in the 1950’s. The old system was capable of generating a maximum of about 55 kW so the new Archimedean Screw system, with its high efficiency across a wide range of flows, is capable of producing at least five times the amount of energy over the year.
The predicted annual output is a massive 1,300,000 kilowatt-hours. To put this in perspective, an average household uses less than 5,000 kilowatt-hours per year, so this hydro scheme has the potential to power more than 260 houses in the locality.
The arrival!
Arriving on site
Almost 15m long the screw weighs approximately 35 tonnes
Offloading from the lorry
With a diameter of 3.5m this screw can take a flow rate of up to 5.5m3/s
The Archimedean Screw turbine provides a fish-friendly alternative to conventional turbines, ideally suited to low-head (1m-15m) sites, and sites with fish protection issues. Extensive fish passage tests have conclusively demonstrated that the large water chambers and slow rotation of the Archimedean Screw allow fish of all sizes, and debris, safe passage through the turbine.
As a result, the Environment Agency (UK) has agreed that no screening is required.Literally thousands of fish passages have been monitored and recorded using underwater cameras at the intake, inside the chamber of the Screw itself and at the outflow to assess the effect of the Screw on salmonids (including smolts and kelts), brown trout and eels.
The trials looked at fish passage across a broad spectrum of sizes and turbine speeds, possibly the most impressive of which was the safe passage of a kelt measuring 98cm in length and weighing 7.6kg. In addition, behavioural and migrational patterns across the species have been shown to be entirely unaffected by the turbine.
Screw is installed at an angle of 26deg. in this channel
Moving into position
In situ
A lifetime of clean, green generation ahead

Fish pass installed along side the Screw

Completed project

The scheme was designed by Hydroplan and the Archimedean Screw equipment was supplied by Mann Power Consulting based in Yorkshire. Mann Power are the pioneers of the Archimedean Screw in the UK and Ireland and Eco Evolution based in Co. Wexford are their authorised representative for the whole of Ireland. This Hydro project at Shane’s Castle is the first of its kind in Northern Ireland and rated at 214 kilowatts this is the largest single Archimedean Screw generator ever manufactured. Eco Evolution and Mann Power installed the massive machine at Shane’s Castle earlier this year. The scheme was commissioned during the summer and it is now fully operational.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

2 komentara:

  1. For centuries civilisations have taken advantage of the power of water. Once used by the Greeks for grinding wheat into flour, the water wheels of the past have been updated to today’s highly efficient turbines that generate electricity by spinning water.

    Small hydropower, defined by installed capacity of up to 10 MW, is the backbone of electricity production in many countries in the European Union. Small hydropower is based on a simple process, taking advantage of the kinetic energy and pressure freed by falling water or rivers, canals, streams and water networks. The rushing water drives a turbine, which converts the water’s pressure and motion into mechanical energy, converted into electricity by a generator. The power of the scheme is proportional to the head (the difference between up- and downstream water levels), the discharge (the quantity of water which goes through the turbines in a given unit of time), and the efficiency of the turbine.

    Status today

    In 2006 there were nearly 21,000 SHP plants (SHPPs) in the EU-27 and if candidate countries as well as Norway, Switzerland, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro are included, the number of SHPPs increases to a total of nearly 23,000.

    The installed capacity of EU-27 was more than 13,000 MW – or more than 15,000 MW if candidate countries, Norway, Switzerland, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro are included.

    In 2006 the total electricity generation from SHP in EU-27 was more than 41,000 GWh, and if including candidate countries, Norway, Switzerland, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro, nearly 52,000 GWh. This means that in 2006 about 1.2% of the total electricity generated as well as 9% of the RES-E in EU-27 came from SHP. On average, in 2006, a SHPP in the EU-27 had a capacity of 0.6 MW and produced about 2.0 GWh.

    The range of investment cost can vary from 1,000 €/kW (Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia) to 12,000 €/kW (Germany). In terms of average SHP production cost the range varies from 0.4 €cent/kWh (Bulgaria) to 17.4 €cents/kWh (Italy).

    Outlook Tomorrow

    The benefits and relevance of hydropower for both the renewable energy and the energy sector are obvious. In particular, hydropower will play a key role in 2030 and 2050 through:

    Development of hybrid systems combining several technologies to guarantee the maximum energy production in the most efficient way.

    Development of multipurpose hydro plants with applications in the fields of drinking water supply systems, irrigation channels, flood control and protection, the creation of adjoining environmental areas, waste water treatment plants and recreational purposes

    Adding security and stability to the European grid thanks to the pump storage.

    Mitigating Climate Change: for example SHP production reduces greenhouse gases such as CO2 by 29,000,000 tons annually and sulphur dioxide by 108,000 tons annually.

    Supporting the development of rural areas by the installation on economically advantage conditions of SHP off-grid units.

  2. Technology Specific Recommendations

    Hydropower technology is already highly efficient and affordable (in terms of investment cost and internal rate of return); furthermore the technology has a long life span. Nevertheless, in order to achieve the forecasted vision of the sector for 2030 and 2050 or surpass these estimations the following issues must be tackled:

    Reconciling targets of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the RES Directive:The implementation of the WFD is currently restraining the present and future development of the sector, as the interpretation of the Directive at a national level is having direct consequences in terms of the approval of new projects and in terms of the allocation of concessions and permissions.
    Environmental measures: Hydropower needs a more objective approach from the environmental community and from stakeholders since current and future legislation could limit in a severe way the benefits of such a source of energy.
    Removal of administrative and regulatory barriers: Administrative procedures to get a hydropower plant operating are still one of the most important barriers for the sector. The long time periods required for obtaining licences, concessions and permissions discourage developers from bringing projects to an end. A more flexible, simple, centralised and homogeneous European system could ease the procedure.
    More attractive incentive regimes (especially in the new MS): Hydropower and in particular small units are currently benefiting from European support schemes. Nevertheless, in comparison to other renewables and comparing between countries, the level of support is not satisfactory in terms of cost-benefit and market competition.
    Need for proactive cooperation and better communication at a local level: In the case of hydropower projects, the rapid establishment of a participatory approach involving the different stakeholders affected by the realisation of the project and in particular the environmental and fishing community is a must for the future development of the sector.
    Investment in R&D and change of thinking: The hydropower technology of the next decades will evolve towards more sustainable solutions. However, in order to minimise the environmental impact while at the same time maximising electricity production, a change of thinking is required and investment in current and future R&D is highly recommended to explore and test different solutions.