Friday, May 22, 2020

Chlorphyrifos (Klorpirifos) zabranjen u Europskoj Uniji



Europska komisija objavila je dvije strategija o ekološki prihvatljivom prehrambenom sustavu i o bioraznolikosti, koje predviđaju smanjenje uporabe pesticida za 50 posto te najmanje 25 posto poljoprivrednih površina za ekološku proizvodnju.
Strategija od "polja do stola" za ekološki prihvatljivu poljoprivredu i prehrambeni sustav, uključuje nekoliko ciljeva koje bi trebalo ispuniti do 2030. godine: smanjenje uporabe i rizika od pesticida za 50 posto, smanjenje uporabe gnojiva za najmanje 20 posto, smanjenje prodaje antimikrobnih sredstava za životinje iz uzgoja i akvakulturu za 50 posto te za prakticiranje ekološke poljoprivrede na 25 posto poljoprivrednih zemljišta.
Nova strategija za bioraznolikost, koja je tijesno povezana sa strategijom "od polja do stola", bavi se glavnim uzrocima gubitka bioraznolikosti, kao što su neodrživo korištenje zemljišta i mora, prekomjerno iskorištavanje prirodnih resursa, onečišćenje i invazivne strane vrste.
U toj se strategiji predlaže da se do 2030. godine najmanje 30 posto europskog mora i kopna pretvori u zaštićena područja kojima se djelotvorno upravlja i vraćanje obilježja krajobraza velike raznolikosti na najmanje 10 posto poljoprivrednih zemljišta.
"Ove će dvije strategije, kao ključni dijelovi europskog zelenog plana, podupirati i gospodarski oporavak. U kontekstu pandemije koronavirusa njihov je cilj ojačati otpornost naših društava na buduće pandemije i prijetnje kao što su posljedice klimatskih promjena, šumski požari, nesigurnost opskrbe hranom ili izbijanje bolesti, među ostalim podupiranjem održivijih praksi u poljoprivredi, ribarstvu i akvakulturi te rješavanjem pitanja zaštite divlje faune i flore i nezakonite trgovine divljim vrstama", navodi Komisija.
Klorpirifos (Chlorphyrifos), za koji je utvrđeno da uzorkuje oštećenje mozga kod djece i druge zdravstvene probleme, napokon se povlači u potpunosti s tržišta EU.
Prema uredbi o zabrani Europske komisije sve članice su 16. siječnja bile obvezne oduzeti odobrenje sredstvima za zaštitu bila koja sadrže klorpirifos s rokom zabrinjavanja zaliha do 16. travnja. Ministarstvo poljoprivrede ukinulo je njihovu registraciju na našem teritoriju i dopustilo je da se zalihe distribuiraju do 16. ožujka 2020. godine, a primjenjuju do 16. travnja 2020. godine. Pritom, 16.veljače zabranjen je uvoz voća i povrća u EU i iz trećih zemalja u kojima se nalazi kemikalija.
Radi se o pesticidu koji se u Hrvatskoj kao i u nekim drugim zemljama legalno upotrebljavao od 2006. godine i postao jedna od najiskorištenijih kemikalija za zaštitu usjeva, voća i povrća. Točnije, klorpirifos je od 2006. godine zabranjen za tretiranje voća i povrća u većini zemalja EU, osim u Švedskoj, Finskoj, Austriji, Njemačkoj, Danskoj, Irskoj, Latviji, Litvi, Sloveniji i Hrvatskoj.
Istraživanja i epidemiološki dokazi o njegovom negativnom utjecaju na ljudsko zdravlje posljednjih su se godina nizala jedno na drugo. Zaključak je tih studija bio kako postoji dokaz da izloženost klorpirifosu može utjecati na neurološki razvoj, pa i oštetiti još nerođeno dijete. Tako su ga povezivali s poremećajima u razvoju mozga, poremećajima pažnje (hiperaktivnosti) i hormonskog sustava kod djece, zaostajanjem u rastu, smanjenim kvocijentom inteligencije. Naravno, veliki farmaceutski lobiji i kompanije opovrgavali su slične studije.
Jedina organizacija koja može imati utjecaj na političke odluke, Europska agencija za sigurnost hrane (EFSA), procijenila je rizik pesticida na zdravlje ljudi u kolovozu. Nakon što je izrazila moguće ''genotoksične i neurološke učinke tijekom razvoja'', njihova procjena je prihvaćena kao odluka da se klorpirifos zabrani na razini EU.
Prema navodima Ministarstva poljoprivrede, u Hrvatskoj je registrirano ''9 sredstava za zaštitu bilja na osnovnih ovih aktivnih tvari: 7 na osnovi klorpirifosa i 2 na osnovi klorpirifos-metila.
Sredstva su se koristila kao zemljišni insekticidi ili folijarno za suzbijanje velikog broja štetnika (insekata i grinja) na raznim kulturama (pšenici, ječmu, raž, pšenoraž, zob, uljana repica, krumpir, mandarini, rajčica, vinova loza, mandarina, klementina, kivi, …) kao i za tretiranje skladišnih štetnika u praznim skladištima i silosima, naveli su.
''Neodobrenje aktivnih tvari klorpirifos i klorpirifos-metil za poljoprivredne proizvođače u RH znači gubitak, međutim poljoprivrednici će morati prihvatiti novonastalu situaciju jer je zabrana vezana uz zaštitu zdravlja ljudi i okoliša'', poručuju iz ministarstva.
Dok prođe dopušteno razdoblje za potrošnju zaliha, ti se otrovi i dalje nalaze na popisu registriranih sredstava za zaštitu bilja. Prema podacima Fitosanitarnog informacijskog sustava u RH, se od 2013. godine trošilo između 24 i 29,6 tisuća kilograma klorpirifosa. Te između 0,8 kh (2016. nije korišten) i 1,6 tisuća kg klorpirifos metila.
U Hrvatskoj klorpirifos uvoze predstavništva ili tvrtke Agro-vil, Chromos-Agro, Pinova, Herbos… Naši ga poljoprivrednici rabe najviše za zaštitu voćnjaka, šećerne repe, uljane repice, duhana, kukuruza i pšenice. Postojali su navodi da se on koristio i u pretjeranim količinama pa su se ostaci tih insekticida iznad dopuštenih granica nekoliko puta našli na nekim proizvodima na tržištu. Tako je primjerice 2016. na jabukama delišes, proizvedenim u Moslavini od proizvođača Fragrarie i prodavanim u trgovačkim lancima Bille, sanitana inspekcija otkrila količinu klorpirifosa od 0,065 mg/kg dok zakonski prisustvo pesticida na hrani može iznostiti 0,01 mg/kg.
Da se političkim i zdravstvenim zabranama može utjecati na tržište dokazuje i činjenica da je jedan od najvećih svjetskih proizvođača klorpirifosa, korporacija Croteva formirana spajanjem Dow Chemical i DuPont,  9. veljače najavila da će prestati proizvoditi kemikaliju do kraja 2020. godine zbog pada u prodaji. Dok im je u 90.-ima prodaja cvjetala, sada je ispod 20%. Trumpova administracija još nije zabranila proizvod zakonski, štoviše poništila je regulatorne planove za zabranu insekticida i odbacila znanstvene zaključke američkih vladinih stručnjaka o štetnosti.
Pesticidi su postali neizostavan alat moderne poljoprivrede, ali tako su postali i neizostavan dio onoga što stavljamo na tanjur. Pojavili su se kao jamstvo za dobar urod i veći prinos, izgovor za borbu protiv gladi u svijetu. Ali, sve je više dokaza koliko je njihova masovna uporaba uzrokovala narušavanje bioraznolikosti, izumiranje kukaca, onečišćenje tla pa i ono suprotno zbog čega su napravljeni – neplodnost zemlje. U EU trenutno traje borba za zabranu ''kralja pesticida'' glifosata, a njen ishod ćemo vidjeti uskoro. Dozvola za njegovu uporabu ističe 15. prosinca 2022., a politička je odluka hoće li se uporaba produžiti.

Hrvatska se trenutno izjasnila da neće zabraniti kontroverzni pesticid, iako su određene države poput Austrije i Francuske krenule u njegovu zabranu na nacionalnoj razini i prije odluke na razini EU.

Congratulations to everyone who took action to ban chlorpyrifos in Europe Union, 
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Law on renewable energy



Renewable energy is the collective name for energy, that is produced using the earth’s natural resources, like sunlight, wind, water resources (rivers, tides and waves), heat from the earth’s surface, or biomass. The process, by which these renewable resources are converted into energy, emits no net greenhouse gases, which is why renewable energy is also referred to as ‘clean energy’.

It can be used to directly produce electricity, or heat for our homes and industries. It can also be used for biogases in heat or electricity production, and for biofuels in the transport sector.

Renewable energy will play a fundamental role in achieving the EU’s energy and climate objectives. Not only is it abundantly available within the EU, but it is also cost-competitive with fossil fuels. As such, it can help make our energy systems more affordable and reduce the EU’s dependency on imported fossil fuels. It also has the potential to provide a range of new jobs, create new industrial opportunities and contribute to economic growth.  



As a technology, renewable energy is not new, and it has a strong foothold in Europe.

Already in 1991, Denmark installed the world’s first offshore wind farm “Vindeby” which included 11 wind turbines. Germany introduced, in the same year, Europe’s first ‘feed-in-tariff’ for renewables; a policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies. 

By 2000, Europe accounted for more than 70% of all wind power installed in the world and 20% of  global solar photovoltaics installations. In 2000 the world’s first large-scale wind farm ‘Horns Rev’ saw the light – also this time in Denmark. It used many technologies that later became industry standards for offshore wind.

Europe also became the largest market for solar photovoltaics by covering more than 70% of the market by 2008. In the same year, the Olmedilla Photovoltaic park in Spain – a 60 megawatt power plant, making it the largest in the world – generated enough solar energy to power 40 000 homes per year.

As the rest of the world is increasingly using and producing renewables, Europe has continued to be a frontrunner. In July 2019, Portugal achieved the lowest cost of a solar photovoltaics park worldwide – a record which still holds today.

Across the EU, the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption has increased over recent years from 9.6% in 2004 to 18.9% in 2018. The five EU countries with the largest share of their energy coming from renewable energy sources (based on 2018 data from Eurostat) are Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Denmark and Austria.

Moreover, according to the EU’s latest energy statistical datasheets, renewables are currently the leading source of electricity generation in the EU.

The EU was an early mover on renewable energy and has made significant efforts, through EU law, to better integrate renewable sources in European energy systems. In striving for global leadership in renewables, the EU has set a clear path for others to follow.

When the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) established national targets for EU member countries, it was seen as a “novelty act”. Today, 173 countries in the world have such targets.



The 2009 directive was revised in December 2018, and adopted as part of the Clean energy for all Europeans package.  It includes a new binding renewable energy target for 2030 of at least 32%, with a clause for a possible upwards revision by 2023.

Driving the ambition further, the European Green Deal outlines a number of initiatives across all policy sectors, aimed at making EU climate neutral by 2050. Renewable energy, together with energy efficiency, is a fundamental energy pillar that will help us reach this ambitious goal. As part of this effort, the European Commission will present new measures aimed at embracing technological advance across all sectors of the energy system. This initiative for so-called “smart sector integration” will help build the European energy system of the future.

Later this year, the Commission will also launch a new strategy meant to boost offshore wind power. This strategy will address opportunities and challenges, impact on energy grids and markets, management of maritime space and industrial policy dimensions of offshore wind. In addition, EU renewable energy legislation will be reviewed, and where necessary revised, by June 2021.

The EU is today a frontrunner on renewable energy and has taken significant measures to boost market uptake. Ambitious policies, along with research and innovation projects and substantial investments, has contributed to a solid industrial foundation. This has in turn helped make some renewable energy technologies more easily accessible and affordable for EU citizens.

Solar panels and wind turbines are now a common sight across the EU, which in large part is due to increased market activity. The cost of solar power production has for instance decreased by 75% between 2009 and 2018, and in 2014, onshore wind became cheaper than coal, gas and nuclear.

In 2019, EU power production from wind and solar power overtook coal for the first time – meaning that they have become as competitive, or even cheaper, than fossil fuels in most places.

As the technologies have become more accessible, citizens have also become more empowered. The Clean energy for all Europeans package, and the recast Renewable Energy Directive, makes it easier for citizens to form energy communities, but also to produce, store and sell their own renewable energy.



The coming decade is expected to see continued growth in renewables. The increase in solar power, for example, will mostly be driven by increased self-consumption and more rooftop panel installation. This puts the EU at a competitive advantage, helping to drive economic growth and create jobs: in 2016, the solar PV industry accounted for 81,000 full-time jobs and it is expected to sustain nearly 175,000 full-time jobs in 2021, with estimates of between 200,000-300,000 jobs in 2030.

For more information: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/topics/renewable-energy_en

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The coronavirus COVID-19 stay in human body permanent



The line between truth and lies is becoming ever murkier. It’s possible the virus sticks around in the body longer than expected, because patients still testing positive for the virus after they have recovered or even getting sick again. 



People who appear to recover and then show symptoms again may have suffered a relapse of the same infection.  Patients produced thousands to millions of viruses in their noses and throats, about 1,000 times as much virus as produced in SARS patients, that heavy load of viruses may help explain why the new coronavirus is so infectious.

These results could also reflect issues with the current diagnostic test, which isn’t sensitive enough to always pick up low levels of virus in an infected person. One has to tell the truth.

The novel coronavirus, the pathogen that causes COVID-19, can remain in the body of an infected person for years and requires lifelong medication, as with the infection of hepatitis B, where a patient is a chronic carrier of the virus. For hepatitis B patients, antibodies are constantly generated to neutralize the viruses.
If antibodies cannot be detected, it is because viruses are constantly replicating and antibodies are generated to neutralize them. Otherwise, it indicates viruses have been deactivated.

For most people, medicine treatment can't cure chronic hepatitis B, only suppressing the replication of the virus. Therefore, most people who start treatment must continue it for life.

Based on experience from SARS and MERS and AIDS, virus covid- 19 stay in human body permanent. On patients after they have recovered the researchers could still detect the virus’s genetic material, RNA, in patients’ swabs or samples, but could no longer find infectious viruses.
That’s an indication that antibodies that the body’s immune system makes against SARS-CoV-2 are killing viruses that get out of cells.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

5G While You Were Sleeping


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar

Što su pojmovi 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi, 60 GHz i  5 GHz WiFi. WiFi u osnovi, je objekt koji omogućuje računalima, pametnim telefonima i drugim uređajima da se povežu s internetom ili međusobno komuniciraju bežično, unutar određenog područja. To je tehnologija koja se koristi već duže vrijeme i ako sve ostale stvari u tehnologijama, i ona je vremenom napredovala.


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar

IEEE 802.11 standardi postavljaju određene atribute za različite kanale koji se mogu koristiti u bežičnoj mreži. Ranije verzije kao što je 801.11b podržavaju frekvencijski pojas od 5GHz. Također 802.11b i 802.11g podržavaju samo radiofrekvencijski pojas od 2,4 GHz. Osim njih postoji i 802.11n standard koji također nudi 5 GHz frekvencijsko područje.

Time dolazimo do termina – dvostruki pojas (dual-band). Naravno, s različitim radio frekvnecijskim pojasima i modulima koji ih podržavaju, postavlja se pitanje u vezi njihovih razlika i koji je standard bolji.


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar


Frekvencijski pojas od 2,4 GHz je prilično zgužvan, jer ga koriste mnogi uređaji, poput starih bežičnih telefona, garažna vrata, monitor za bebe, kao i mnogi drugi uređaji, koji imaju tendenciju da koriste frekvenciju od 2,4 GHz. Dulji valovi koji se koriste u frekvencijskom pojasu od 2,4 GHz bolje su prilagođeni duljim rasponima i prijenosu kroz zidove ili čvrste objekte.

Zato je bolje ako vam je potreban duži domet na vašim uređajima ili imate puno zidova ili drugih objekata na područjima gdje trebate imati dobru WIFI pokrivenost. Međutim, s druge strane, budući da mnogi drugi uređaji upotrebljavaju frekvencijski pojas od 2,4 GHz, nastala zagušenja mogu uzrokovati gubitak veze i brzine sporije od očekivanog.


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar

Brzina od 5 GHz je znatno manje zagušena, što znači da ćete vjerojatno dobiti stabilnije veze. Vidjet ćete i veće brzine. S druge strane, kraći valovi, koje koriste 5GHz ruteri čine ga manje sposobnim u okruženju zidova i čvrstih objekata. Također ima kraći domet od rutera sa 2,4GHz.

Valja napomenuti da 5GHz ruteri pružaju veču brzinu prijenosa u usporedbi s frekvencijom od 2,4 GHz. I uz to, 5GHz pojas uključuje mnogo veći broj kanala, 23 da budemo specifični, dok 2.4GHz ima samo 3 kanala. Međutim 2.4GHz ruteri obično imaju veći domet i lakše prolaze kroz zidove.  U idealnim uvjetima, 2,4 GHz Wi-Fi podržava do 450 Mbps ili 600 Mbps, ovisno o klasi rutera, dok 5 GHz Wi-Fi podržava do 1300 Mbps.

Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar

Za Wi-Fi-N, dva pojasa istodobno rade simultano za uređaje povezane na mrežu. Wi-Fi 5GHz bend podržava samo Wi-Fi-AC i ima širinu pojasa do 42Mhz, a također sadrži veću širinu kanala od 80MHz i 160MHz koji omogućuju veće brzine.

Druga stvar koju je važno napomenuti je  Wi-Fi raspon (pokrivenost), pogotovo ako ste jedan od onih koji najviše mrze slab Wi-Fi signal. Evo što biste trebali znati. Kad god govorimo o rasponu u smislu Wi-Fi-ja, zapravo mislimo na udaljenost koju pokrivaju valovi koji se prenose od antene do prijemnog uređaja.


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar

Kao što smo spomenuli 5GHz ruteri nude veću brzinu od 2,4 GHz, ali uz nedostatak manjeg dometa, i činjenicu da radio valovi s većom frekvencijom teže prolaze kroz guste prepreke poput zidova i ostalih sličnih objekata. Ako uzmemo primjer dometa Wifi rutera u zatvorenom prostoru, doseg Wi-Fi-G rutera bi prosječno iznosio oko 70m, dok za Wi-Fi-AC router to bi bilo oko 35m.

Tu je i Wi-Fi-AD 60GHz (IEEE 802.11ad) ili WiGig, ovaj se pojas također koristi u Wi-Fi mrežama. Može omogućiti brzinu prijenosa podataka do 8Gbps, a raspon u zatvorenom prostoru je u prosjeku oko 60m.


Here's a photo that I took myself. Zeljko Serdar


Važno je napomenuti da veće radio frekvencije poput 5GHz i 60GHz donose više prednosti. Jedna od važnih prednosti je smanjena interferencija sa drugim mrežama u istom području. Na primjer, Bluetooth tehnologija koju koristimo, kao i “walkie-talkie”, rade na frekvencijskom pojasu od 2,4 GHz.

Dok današnji moderni ruteri dolaze sa upakiranim mogučnostima svih ovih frekvencijskih raspona kako kako bi se postigla  Gigabitna brzina, sa što manje kompromisa u dosegu i rasponu. Jedan od primjera takvog rutera je predstavljen i na ovogodišnjem CES-u, a to je Linksys WRT32X. Radi kao dual band na 2.4GHz i 5 GHZ, za veći domet i smanjenu interferenciju.





Next-Generation Outdoor Wireless Access Points: Cisco Aironet 1572EAC, 1572IC, and 1572EC

●  Most advanced carrier-grade outdoor Wi-Fi AP
●  802.11ac dual-band (2.4 and 5 GHz) radios
●  Maximum radiated RF power allowed by law
●  Industry’s only 4x4, 3-spatial-stream outdoor AP
●  1.3 Gbps (5 GHz) WLAN RF data rates
●  Cisco Flexible Antenna Port technology
●  Uplink: Fiber/SFP, GE, Cable Modem
●  DOCSIS3.0 with 24x8 channel bonding
●  Power: AC, DC, Cable, UPOE, PoE-Out (802.3at)
●  4G LTE coexistence
●  Module option: Investment protection and future proofing
●  Low visual profile design
●  Controller-based or standalone operation
●  Cisco Aironet 1572EAC
◦   External antenna with AC-power model
●  Cisco Aironet 1572IC
◦   Internal antennas with cable modem model
●  Cisco Aironet 1572EC
◦   External antenna with cable modem model

Highest-performing outdoor wireless AP

The Cisco Aironet 1570 Series outdoor access point is ideal for both enterprise and carrier-class network operators looking to extend Wi-Fi coverage outdoors. It’s the industry’s highest-performing outdoor AP and supports the latest Wi-Fi standard, 802.11ac, with data connection speeds up to 1.3 Gbps. This industrial-grade AP supports 4x4 Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) smart antenna technology and three spatial streams for optimum performance.

The Aironet 1570 provides higher throughput over a larger area with more pervasive coverage. The AP is also well suited to high-density environments w here many users in close proximity generate RF interference that needs to be managed. Examples of environments that can benefit from the Aironet 1570 Series:

●     Outdoor enterprise campuses

●     Outdoor university and school campuses

●     Public venues: stadiums, train stations, airports

●     Service provider networks: Wi-Fi offload for mobile, fixed-line, and cable operators

●     Mining operations

●     Manufacturing yards

●     Municipalities

●     Large metropolitan areas

Features and benefits

The Cisco Aironet 1570 Series meets the demanding needs of customers across a broad range of industries spanning enterprises and service providers. It offers a scalable and secure mesh architecture for high-performance Wi-Fi services. It also addresses the expanding demand for Wi-Fi access services, network-to-network mobility, video surveillance, and cellular data offload to Wi-Fi.

The Cisco 1570 builds and expands on the successful 1550 series legacy of being the Wi-Fi outdoor AP of choice by service providers needing carrier-grade, ruggedized devices that are easy to deploy and maintain.






Cisco Aironet 1560 Series


Ideal for applications requiring rugged outdoor Wi-Fi coverage, the Cisco Aironet 1560 Series Access Points offer the latest IEEE 802.11ac Wave 2 radio standard in a compact, aesthetically pleasing, easy-to-deploy package. The 1560 Series offers flexible deployment options for service providers and enterprise networks, that need the fastest links possible for mobile, outdoor clients (smartphones, tablets, and laptops) and wireless backhaul. With options for internal or external antennas, the 1560 Series Access Points give network operators the flexibility to balance their desired wireless coverage with their need for easy deployment. The Cisco Aironet 1560 Series is built on the strong base of Cisco® wireless innovations such as:
●     Cisco CleanAir® technology for spectrum intelligence
●     Cisco ClientLink technology for beamforming
●     Radio Resource Management (RRM) for dynamic transmitter channel and power control
Whether deployed as a traditional access point or wireless mesh access point, the Cisco Aironet 1560 Series provides the throughput capacity needed for today’s bandwidth-hungry devices.


The Cisco Aironet 1560 Series offers the following features:

●     Improved performance for multiple client devices: The 802.11ac Wave 2 access points use MU-MIMO technology, which allows different data streams to all flow at once from the access point to multiple 802.11ac Wave 2-supported devices. Now, multiple 802.11ac Wave 2 devices can connect at the same time, getting the information they need quicker.

●     5-GHz support: The Cisco Aironet 1560 Series doubles the scale of 5 -GHz mobile devices and raises the performance of high-density environments.

●     4G LTE Coexistence: The Cisco Aironet 1560 Series includes robust filtering around the 2.4 GHz unlicensed band to block out nearby licensed 4G LTE cellular signals.

●     Cisco Flexible Antenna Port technology uses software configurable for either single- or dual-band antennas. It allows you to use the same antenna ports for either dual-band antennas to reduce footprint or single-band antennas to optimize radio coverage.

●     Cisco Mobility Express: This solution is designed to bring enterprise-class wireless access to small and medium-sized networks. Easy to set up with low maintenance, Mobility Express includes advanced features from Cisco and does not require a physical controller appliance.

●     Cisco High Density Experience (HDX): Cisco HDX comes standard on the 1560, giving this access point top-of-the-line network efficiency over a large number of wireless clients. HDX uses customized chipsets to target the needs of high-density networks. It is built with best-in-class RF architecture and gives a better user experience for high-performance applications.





The Cisco Aironet 1540 Series is ideal for applications requiring rugged outdoor Wi-Fi coverage and supports the latest 802.11ac Wave 2 radio standard. Housed in a compact, aesthetically pleasing, easy-to-deploy package, the 1540 Series offers flexible deployment options for service providers and enterprise networks that need the fastest links possible for mobile outdoor clients (smartphones, tablets, and laptops) and wireless backhaul. The 1540 Series access points give network operators the flexibility to balance their desired wireless coverage with their need for easy deployment.

Whether deployed as a traditional access point or a wireless mesh access point, the 1540 Series provides the throughput capacity needed for today’s bandwidth-hungry devices.

Features and benefits

By adhering to the 802.11ac Wave 2 standard, the 1540 Series provides a data rate of up to 867 Mbps on the 5-GHz radio. This exceeds the data rates offered by access points that support the 802.11n standard. It also enables a total aggregate dual-radio data rate of up to 1.1 Gbps. This provides the necessary foundation for enterprise and service provider networks to stay ahead of the performance expectations and needs of their wireless users.

In recent years corporate users have increasingly preferred wireless access as the form of network connectivity due to its convenience. With this shift, there is an expectation that wireless should not slow down users’ day-to-day work, but should enable a high-performance experience. The 1540 Series delivers this performance with highly secure and reliable wireless connections for mobile end users.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Testing for the coronavirus (COVID-19)



Testing for the coronavirus (COVID-19) has varied widely across countries. To reduce the risk of new outbreaks, countries will need to greatly increase their testing capacity. 


A  key  question  behind  any  strategy  to  ease confinement  restrictions  and  reopen  economic activities is how to avoid a new spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that would necessitate further lock downs.  Once the  number  of  infected  people  has  successfully  been  brought  sufficiently down, quick  suppression  of new  waves  of  viral  infections  will  be  key.  Testing  strategies  are central to achieve this.

There are two types of tests.

First, molecular diagnostic testing (RT-PCR) helps to identify those individuals who are infected at the time of the test. An effective strategy that tests, tracks people infected and traces their contacts (TTT), helps to reduce the spread of the virus and thus bring its reproduction number below one.
Given the characteristics of this coronavirus–including the large number of asymptomatic cases and high reproduction number –to be effective at suppressing the spread of the virus, the TTT strategy should be used very widely, requiring a very large proportion of all cases (between 70 and  90%) to be traced to  prevent  a new outbreak of the  virus. This  would require increasing capacity for testing enormously; putting in places trict measures to prevent people who may be infectious from breaking quarantine; as well as identifying ways to trace contacts,which may push the limits of privacy concerns, unless new approaches to digital tracing, currently under development, are put in place.
Significant logistics and capacity constraints –ranging from the availability of trained personnel to  take  accurate  specimen,  to  the  time  required  for  laboratory  analysis  and  the  availability  of reagents –have impeded more widespread diagnostic testing in many countries so far. Recent development of faster RT-PCR molecular diagnostic testing, which can be deployed at the point of care, should help scale-up capacity for  effective TTT in countries. Digital  enabled contact-tracing can  help  improve  the  speed  and  effectiveness  of  TTT  strategies,  as  seen  in  some countries.

A second type of test –so-called serologic test –detects people who have had a prior infection and  thus  developed  antibodies.  Such  tests  can  be  used  for  two  purposes,  namely  to  allow people who have acquired immunity to return to work safely, and to provide intelligence on the evolution of the epidemic across the population. Rapid serology test kits need to be developed and  their  clinical  performance  needs  to  be  demonstrated  before  deployment  at  scale  can happen.
Despite the fact that a relatively low number of people have so far been infected and thus we are still far from herd immunity, the successful implementation of serologic testing strategies at large scale can help reduce the spread of the virus and complement the TTT strategy.

This will also require major efforts, including: 

1) verifying the clinical performance of tests, particularly for rapid  serologic  tests; 

2) preparing  procurement  and  logistics  arrangements  to  scale  up production and deployment of the tests, and train and deploy human resources, particularly for diagnostic RT-PCR tests; and

3) providing adequate safeguards to protect civil right and privacy of populations while deploying or apps-enabled tracking strategies.

Since the end of last year, the world has been in the grip of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has caused tens of thousands of deaths from the respiratory disease COVID-19. To combat the pandemic, many countries have put in place strict containment and mitigation strategies to minimise the risk of transmission, decrease the spread of the virus and ‘buy time’ for health care systems to cope with the huge numbers of patients and ultimately save as many lives as possible. As part of the response to COVID-19, virtually all OECD countries affected by the virus have introduced strict restrictions to social and economic life, including social distancing and even full lock downs. The big question  is  now  how  to  manage  these  restrictions,  and  how  to  go  back  to  a new  normal of  living  with SARS-CoV-2; a social and economic life that coexist with the virus. To avoid new peaks in the number of cases, overstretching health system capacities, infection rates need to remain suppressed until a vaccine or  effective  treatment  are  found.  If  all  confinement  strategies  are  lifted,however,  the  infection  rate  is expected to rebound in a matter of weeks. A strategy is needed about when and how to relax confinement, and when and how to re-tighten some of them when necessary. This is needed to minimise the risk of further peaks of the outbreak or, at least, to win as much time as possible between the successive peaks.

A number of factors need to be in place to achieve this goal. 

First, healthcare capacity and resources need to be increased to ensure safe and effective management of future severe COVID-19 cases.

Second, we need to understand the virus better, including: the incubation period and infectiousness of the disease  at  different  stages;  the  extent  of  asymptomatic  spread;  immunity  and  its  duration  in  those  who contracted the virus; and the impact of changes in temperature on the disease spread.

Third –and the topic of this brief –information about the presence and propagation of SARS-CoV-2 in the population  needs  to  improve  significantly. For  this,  widespread  testing  and  effective  contact  tracing, including cases with no or only mild symptoms, are key components of the post-lock down strategy. Better information will help achieve three goals:

Tracking of new cases to suppress the resurgence of local outbreaks as early as possible, aiming to avoid new peaks;

Identifying previously infected people who can safely return to work, to revitalise the economy and to strengthen the health workforce;

Gaining  intelligence  on  the  evolution  of  the  epidemic,  including  on  when a  threshold  for herd immunity has been reached.In the case of COVID-19, it has been estimated that 50% to 60% of the population needs to be immune to the virus to halt its spread.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation that works to build better policies for better lives. Together with governments, policy makers and citizens, work on establishing evidence-based international standards and finding solutions to a range of social, economic and environmental challenges. From improving economic performance and creating jobs to fostering strong education and fighting international tax evasion, provide a unique forum and knowledge hub for data and analysis, exchange of experiences, best-practice sharing, and advice on public policies and international standard-setting.


More info at: Tackling coronavirus (COVID‑19)
Contributing to a global effort


Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

PS.
The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is an international, large-scale survey of teachers, school leaders and the learning environment in schools. This note presents findings based on the reports of lower secondary teachers and their school leaders in mainstream public and private schools. CROATIA





Saturday, April 18, 2020

App Immuni by Bending Spoons S.p.a. (Il testo è in italiano)




Italija je odobrila aplikaciju koja će pomoći u praćenju infekcija u fazi 2. To je aplikacija Immuni tvrtke Bending Spoons S.p.a. iz Milana. Ovakva tehnologija uskoro se primjenjuje i u ostatku svijeta pa tako i u Republici Hrvatskoj.

Primjena novih tehnologija omogućava praćenje blizine mnogo učinkovitije i brže od tradicionalnih što nije uvijek učinkovito i uključuje veće trošenje resursa. Aplikacija treba omogućiti upravo to: pronađite ljude s kojima je pozitivni subjekt Covid-19 došao u kontakt prethodnih dana i rekonstruirati povijest njegovih pokreta.

Južna Koreja često se navodi kao model, kao i Singapur, gdje su usvojena rješenja slična onome koje je sada izabrala Italija. Sustavi praćenja koji se koriste u tim zemljama rezultat je procesa koji je započeo prethodnim epidemijama poput SARS-a i MERS-a.

Kada je Pandorina kutija otvorena, iz nje su, među ljude koji su do tada bili živjeli bezbrižno u blagostanju, izašla sva zla: kuga, tuga, siromaštvo, zločin, očaj, pohlepa, starost, bolest, ludost, prkos, glad, prijevara... Pandora ju je brzo zatvorila i unutra je ostala samo nada. Svijet je bio vrlo hladan i turoban, a onda je Pandora opet otvorila kutiju te je nada izletjela van. Tako je čovječanstvo i u zlim vremenima dobilo malo nade.

Druga verzija mita govori da je nada bila zapravo najgore od svih zala jer je bila jednaka strašnom predznanju. Pandora je tako, zatvorivši kutiju prije nego što je nada izašla van, spasila svijet od najgore štete. Naime, sama bi se riječ „nada“ (grč. Ελπις) bolje mogla prevesti kao „predviđanje nesreće“. Mit o otvaranju Pandorine kutije, zapravo je, teodicejsko pitanje: zašto postoji zlo u svijetu?



Il testo è in italiano.

Dopo aver conosciuto Immuni, abbiamo chiesto ad autorevoli esperti di protezione dei dati, di diritto d’autore e di sicurezza informatica il giudizio sull’app di contact tracing scelta dal Commissario straordinario per l’emergenza Covid-19.

L'Italia ha scelto l'app che dovrà aiutare il tracciamento dei contagi nella fase 2. Si tratta di Immuni, soluzione nata da una sinergia tra il Centro medico Santagostino e Bending Spoons, impresa italiana di sviluppo di app per iOS.  Che cos'è il contact tracing, ossia la tracciatura dei contatti È una delle "azioni di sanità pubblica utilizzate per la prevenzione e il contenimento di molte malattie infettive perché può aiutare a identificare individui potenzialmente infetti prima che emergano sintomi e può impedire la trasmissione successiva dei casi secondari", si legge nell'ordinanza con cui il commissario straordinario Domenico Arcuri ha disposto la stipula del contratto di concessione gratuita dell'app da parte della milanese Bending Spoons. L'importanza del controllo accurato dei contagi è stata sottolineata anche dal direttore generale dell’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, che a marzo, nel pieno dell'epidemia nel nostro Paese, indicava la strada per interrompere la catena del virus: testare tutti gli individui con sospetta infezione da coronavirus, isolarli se positivi, tracciarne i contatti avuti sino ai due giorni precedenti ai sintomi ed estendere il test anche a queste persone. 

L'applicazione delle nuove tecnologie consente un tracciamento di prossimità molto più efficiente e rapido del tradizionale che non sempre è efficace e comporta maggior dispendio di risorse. L'app proposta da Bending Spoons e Centro medico Santagostino dovrebbe consentire di fare proprio questo: rintracciare le persone con cui è entrato in contatto il soggetto positivo al Covid-19 nei giorni precedenti e ricostruire la cronologia dei suoi spostamenti. Ma come conciliare tutto questo con la privacy? Anonimato, bluetooth e volontarietà In osservanza delle linee guida sulla tutela dei dati personali adottate a livello europeo, Immuni: - garantirà l'anonimato - non utilizzerà la geolocalizzazione (come avviene in Corea del Sud, per esempio) - sfrutterà la connettività Bluetooth - avrà base di utilizzo volontaria L'app in sostanza dovrebbe consentire agli utenti di tenere un forte controllo sui propri dati. I contatti avuti con gli altri vengono tracciati, ma restano 'bloccati' nello smartphone dell'utente fino a quando non si ha certezza che la persona che l'ha installata sul proprio cellulare è risultata positiva al test del Covid-19. A quel punto la persona stessa può dare il consenso al trattamento dei propri dati conservati sul cellulare, permettendo quindi di rintracciare tutti quelli con cui è entrata in contatto nei giorni precedenti. 

Diario e tracciamento L'app, da quanto si è appreso finora, si compone di due parti: un registro sullo stato di salute della persona e della sua eventuale sintomatologia, se affetta da coronavirus, e un tracciamento dei contatti che consentirà al software di riconoscere e tenere memoria dei dispositivi con cui lo smartphone del paziente è entrato in contatto. Nessuno dei dati raccolti verrà raccolto o diffuso prima che il paziente, se affetto da covid-19, abbia deciso di dare il consenso al loro utilizzo.  Il diario clinico È un registro sullo stato di salute della persona. Vi sono indicati i dati che l'utente sceglie di inserire (un po' come per le app di salute o fitness): sesso, età, malattie pregresse, farmaci assunti. Bisognerà aggiornare quotidianamente il diario con eventuali sintomi e dettagli sullo stato di salute. Come avviene anche per chi usa l'app AllertaLOM (CercaCovid) della Regione Lombardia. Tracciamento dei contatti via Bluetooth: Il Bluetooth consente di rilevare la vicinanza di due smartphone (bisognerà capire quali sono i parametri di distanza che saranno adottati). L'utente potrà quindi sapere se è venuto in contatto con una persona positiva al COVID-19. Sarà inoltre possibile ripercorrere tutti gli incontri di una persona positiva per tracciare e isolare i potenziali contagiati: l'app conserva infatti un registro con i codici identificativi anonimi di tutti gli altri smartphone in prossimità dei quali si è stati vicino.




Bluetooth o Gps? Al di là degli aspetti legati alla privacy, la tecnologia bluetooth sembra costituire un sistema più performante in materia di contact tracing. Il bluetooth infatti certifica che due telefoni si sono incontrati in maniera diretta e immediata. Con i sistemi di geolocalizzazione, che comunque possono avere un margine di errore di qualche metro, si colloca una persona in una certa posizione. Per certificare chi era vicino occorre confrontare le posizioni rilevate dal satellite.  Ambito di applicazione dell'app Immuni sarà un'app adottata a livello nazionale: non dovrebbe esserci o quantomeno dovrebbe essere ridotta la frammentazione degli strumenti di tracciamento e monitoraggio che le Regioni stanno adottando in ordine sparso (come la Regione Lombardia). Si dovrebbe partire con alcune regioni pilota - ancora da definire - per poi estenderne l'uso a un'area più vasta. I limiti Il limite principale è lo stesso riscontrato in tutto il mondo: la volontà dell'utente. Per essere efficace Immuni dovrà essere utilizzata su base giornaliera dal 60 % degli italiani.  Dubbi sull'efficacia delle app La discussione è aperta. E non solo per questioni di privacy. La Corea del Sud è stata spesso citata come modello, così come Singapore, dove sono state adottate soluzioni simili a quella scelta dall'Italia. I sistemi di monitoraggio utilizzati in questi paesi sono il frutto di un percorso iniziato per fronteggiare precedenti epidemie come la SARS e la MERS. E quindi possiamo dire, che, in parte, è già stato rodato. Si tratta spesso di Paesi i cui governi godono di un certo livello di discrezionalità in tema di sfruttamento dei dati. In Italia la mappa dei nostri spostamenti è ricostruibile usando solo i dati delle compagnie telefoniche e quelli provenienti da Google, Facebook e Apple.

Per quanto riguarda la privacy, disciplinata in Europa dal GDPR, bisogna ricordare che il decreto-legge del 9 marzo per il potenziamento del Servizio sanitario nazionale prevede, all’articolo 14, in via eccezionale e per la durata dell’emergenza COVID-19, una deroga al GDPR per il trattamento e la comunicazione da parte di soggetti qualificati dei dati sanitari dei cittadini interessati dal Coronavirus. Sul punto si è espresso il Comitato Europeo per la Protezione dei dati (EDPB) che, in una nota diramata il 19 marzo dal titolo Dichiarazione sul trattamento dei dati personali nel contesto dell’epidemia di COVID-19, ha specificato che "Ie autorità pubbliche dovrebbero innanzitutto cercare di trattare i dati relativi all'ubicazione in modo anonimo (ossia, trattare dati in forma aggregata e tale da non consentire la successiva re-identificazione delle persone), il che potrebbe permettere di generare analisi sulla concentrazione di dispositivi mobili in un determinato luogo ("cartografia"). Il caso Singapore Una delle applicazioni in uso è TraceTogether: consente alle autorità locali di rintracciare rapidamente le persone che sono state esposte a casi confermati di coronavirus e di identificare le persone che si sono trovate nelle immediate vicinanze - nel raggio di 2 metri per almeno 30 minuti - di pazienti affetti da coronavirus utilizzando la tecnologia Bluetooth. Un aspetto che, a detta del Government Technology Agency (GovTech) e del Ministero della Salute (MOH), può rivelarsi particolarmente utile nei casi in cui le persone infette non conoscono tutti coloro con cui sono stati nelle vicinanze per un periodo di tempo prolungato.

"Credo che proprio Singapore sia un esempio perfetto per anticipare quello che potrà succedere in Italia, perché lì non è stato deciso il lockdown ma solo alcune restrizioni e l'app come aiuto per il tracciamento dei contagi", spiega all'AGI Marco Trombetti, fondatore di Pi-Campus e tra i maggiori esperti in Italia di nuove tecnologie. Quindi Singapore vive una situazione simile a quella che possiamo possiamo immaginare in Italia con la Fase 2 dell'epidemia.  "E se guardiamo quello che è successo a Singapore, possiamo dire che è stato un disastro", commenta. "L'applicazione adottata dal governo è stata scaricata meno di un milione di volte su circa sei milioni di abitanti, circa il 18%. Di questi solo il 50% ha attivato l'app, quindi circa mezzo milione di persone. Non solo. C'e' un gap nei dati raccolti perché il Bluetooth non traccia automaticamente gli iPhone, che a Singapore sono circa il 38% degli smartphone usati".




Il parere degli esperti: "In chiaro il codice sorgente" "Il codice sorgente dell'app Immuni dovrebbe essere messo in chiaro per trasparenza e possibilità di integrazione" da altri sviluppatori: è il parere di Stefano Zanero, professore associato di computer security al Politecnico di Milano. "L'open source - sottolinea - è una scelta fatta da altri sistemi di tracciamento in Europa e anche da Singapore".   "Rilasciare il codice sorgente serve a poter analizzare l'app in ottica di sicurezza e privacy, per vedere esattamente l'applicazione cosa fa dietro le quinte, oltre che per scoprire eventuali vulnerabilità", dice Andrea Zapparoli Manzoni, esperto internazionale di cyber security governativa."Poiché Bending Spoons - continua - ha dato codice sorgente e proprietà intellettuale dell'app al governo, dovrebbe essere quest'ultimo a rilasciarlo".    "Non è facile dare un giudizio su questa applicazione perché non c'è ancora niente di pubblico, un white paper, un documento che spieghi le caratteristiche tecniche e neanche le osservazioni della task force del ministero dell'Innovazione che ha scelto l'app - osserva Zanero - Ci sono vari modi per fare 'contact tracing' nel rispetto delle privacy e con l'uso del bluetooth e sembra che l'app scelta vada in questa direzione, ma nessuna considerazione è stata resa pubblica, sarebbe utile per valutarla meglio e per capire perché la scelta è caduta su questa proposta e non su altre arrivate alla task force del ministero, come l'altra app considerata in pole position cioè l'app Covid Community Alert che è open source".

La carica delle app Sono almeno una sessantina le iniziative avviate su scala regionale e anche di singola Asl in campo digitale nell'ambito del contrasto al coronavirus, secondo il censimento realizzato nel Terzo Instant Report Covid-19 da Altems, Alta Scuola di Economia e Management dei Sistemi Sanitari dell'Università Cattolica.  Sul fronte "digital" in particolare la Regione Lazio ha disposto l'attivazione dell'app "DoctorCovid", che permette a medici di famiglia e pediatri di libera scelta di gestire le persone in quarantena a domicilio oltre che a monitorare cittadini a casa con sintomi ma che non avevano ricevuto il tampone, contribuendo così decongestionare iCovid Hospital attivati. Le altre Regioni si caratterizzano per diverse iniziative lanciate a livello aziendale, 21 globalmente nelle 6 regioni mappate delle 64 individuate a livello nazionale(tutte le Regioni). Di queste ben 8 sono state attivate da aziende sanitarie della Regione Lombardia e 8 da aziende della Regione Veneto. In Lombardia è attiva l'applicazione AllertaLOM della Regione che ha l'obbiettivo di tracciare la mappa del contagio. Nel messaggio arrivato via sms ai residenti si chiede di compilare ogni giorno il questionario anonimo sul proprio stato di salute che è contenuto nell'applicazione per "aiutare a tracciare la mappa del contagio". All'iniziativa hanno aderito quasi un milione di lombardi. "Grazie all'analisi di questi dati statistici - ha detto il vicepresidente della Regione Fabrizio Sala - riferiti alla più vasta area che subito il maggior contagio da coronavirus, i nostri ricercatori potranno definire una mappa del rischio". Sala ha ricordato: "Il questionario è assolutamente anonimo, va ripetuto ogni giorno e invito chi ha già scaricato la nostra app gratuita dalle piattaforme Ios e Android a invitare le persone che conoscono, i figli e i loro contatti a coinvolgere quanti più cittadini possibili in modo da raggiungere in tempi brevi il nostro obiettivo di un milione di lombardi che dispongono dell'app, partecipano al nostro progetto e aggiornano quotidianamente i loro dati". 

All'incrocio tra monitoraggio e sovranità digitale, considero il problema più grave a monte. In altre parole, anche se ogni nazione rintracciasse i propri cittadini, invece di avere la soluzione paneuropea sperata dalla Commissione, non sarebbe ancora meglio, perché il monitoraggio digitale dei contatti è intrinsecamente pericoloso. 

Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

Friday, April 17, 2020

Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing


Pan-European Privacy Preserving Proximity Tracing Initiative
EU consortium led by Germany’s Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute for telecoms (HHI)  release software code that can be used to create apps that will help track transmission chains of COVID-19.  The Pan-European Privacy Preserving Proximity Tracing (“PEPP-PT”) project comprises more than 130 members across eight European countries, including scientists, technologists, and experts.
The PEPP-PT project has published a manifesto explaining its intention to create “well-tested proximity tracking technologies” that national authorities can use to create their own COVID-19 apps.  According to the manifesto, these technologies ensure “secure data anonymization” and “cross border interoperability”.  The apps concerned would inform users, based on the phone’s Bluetooth signals, whether they have been in the proximity of a person who was tested positive for COVID-19.
National public authorities developing apps on the basis of this software remain free to decide how to inform persons that have been in contact with someone who has tested positive.  The PEPP-PT website states that national cyber security agencies and national data protection agencies will assess the apps that are created using the code released by the PEPP-PT.  EU Commissioner Thierry Breton indicated that the European Commission is also investigating whether an app using the PEPP-PT software would be compliant with “EU values”, reflecting the privacy concerns associated with such apps.
Several Member States have been considering using apps in the fight against COVID-19 (e.g.Ireland and Germany).  Polish authorities, for example, have developed an app that individuals who tested positive for COVID-19, and are in quarantine, can voluntary use to prove that they remain in quarantine (i.e., by sending selfies with their location to the authorities), as an alternative to receiving police visits.
COVID-19 Apps and Websites
Since the start of the COVID-19 crisis in Europe, private and public entities have begun releasing COVID-19 related apps.  In response, some EU Supervisory Authorities have issued statements in relation to such apps:
  • The Belgian Supervisory Authority provided brief guidance to developers of COVID-19 apps (and websites). It clarifies the expected standard of anonymity and, in particular, it states that IP addresses should always be considered as personal data. It also distinguishes apps offered by healthcare providers and other health apps.  In the latter case, the apps should provide at the time of set up, and before any personal data is collected or shared, all the information required by Article 13 of the GDPR. According to the statement, “at the end of the use of the application”, all personal data should be deleted. 

Italy RAI news yesterday:

https://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/articoli/coronavirus-app-scelta-tracciamento-accordo-piattaforma-immuni-87df3c01-2f2b-459b-9d66-24eb053de8ae.html

  • The Italian Supervisory Authority states that it “would have no objection” to an app managed by public authorities that tracks persons who tested positive with COVID-19 and people who have come into contact with such persons, provided the app complies with data protection law.
  • The German Supervisory Authority of Rhineland-Palatinate states that an app that tracks the transmission of COVID-19 using Bluetooth technology “is possible”, provided it complies with data protection law. The statement lists various criteria that, in the opinion of the authority, are decisive in order to comply with data protection law.  In particular, the authority notes that use of the app should be voluntary, the purposes for processing the data be limited, that pseudonymization techniques are applied to the data and that the data be deleted if there is no longer a risk of infection.
  • The Slovenian Supervisory Authority issued a statement about the website https://covid-19-stats.si/, which allowed individuals to report and record their COVID-19 symptoms, provide information about the symptoms, indicate the number of family members in the individual’s household, record the date symptoms were first detected, and the individual’s phone number and residential information. Despite claiming that it only collected anonymized data, the authority’s investigation revealed that the data was only encrypted and not anonymized and therefore did not comply with the GDPR.  As a result, the website announced that it has deleted its database and is looking into how to provide this service in a GDPR-compliant manner.  The same authority issued a statement on the use of geolocation data to fight COVID-19, which states that this is only possible in exceptional circumstances and provided appropriate safeguards are in place.
  • The Spanish Supervisory Authority states that only public authorities have the authority to process personal data to control the epidemic. This includes collecting data in order to offer self-assessment tools and the collection of geolocation data for creating maps of high/low risk areas, or to control whether individuals who have tested positive comply with quarantine restrictions.  Private entities may only process personal data pursuant to the instructions of the public health authorities.
In general, the statements released by EU Supervisory Authorities so far suggest that the use of apps or websites by public authorities to track the spreading of COVID-19 will be allowed, provided they comply with the principles found in EU data protection laws.  By contrast, regulators appear far more skeptical that private-sector bodies should be deploying and using such apps or websites.  CCRES will continue to monitor these developments closely.



From the Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing web site:

Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing
(PEPP-PT) makes it possible to interrupt new chains of SARS-CoV-2 transmission rapidly and effectively by informing potentially exposed people. 
We are a large and inclusive European team. We provide standards, technology, and services to countries and developers. We embrace a fully privacy-preserving approach. We build on well-tested, fully implemented proximity measurement and scalable backend service. We enable tracing of infection chains across national borders. 

PEPP-PT was created to assist national initiatives by supplying ready-to-use, well-tested, and properly assessed mechanisms and standards, as well as support for interoperability, outreach, and operation when needed.

The PEPP-PT mechanisms will have these core features:
  1. Well-tested and established procedures for proximity measurement on popular mobile operating systems and devices.
  2. Enforcement of data protection, anonymization, GDPR compliance, and security.
  3. International interoperability to support tracing local infection chains even if a chain spans multiple PEPP-PT participating countries.
  4. Scalable backend architecture and technology that can be deployed with local IT infrastructure.
  5. Certification service to test and ensure local implementations use the PEPP-PT mechanisms in a secure and interoperable manner.
  6. Our reference implementation is available under the Mozilla License Agreement.
To find out more about the additional services we offer to support infrastructure and installation campaigns to enable country-specific applications, please download our Manifesto. 

The virus has spread quickly and knows no political boundaries. To bring it under control, we must act in the same manner; speed and international cooperation are essential to protect health, privacy, and the economy.
Find out more about our view of the current situation and why we believe proximity-tracing is the appropriate solution to resuming a normal life, opening our borders, and restarting the economy.

We invite all countries to participate and use what we have to offer. We are stronger together against SARS-CoV-2. Please contact us if you are interested in using our services or contributing. 

We are establishing a partner management team to help you get going quickly.

As a partner, you will:
… have access to our services and mechanisms.
… have access to our documentation and the source code of a reference implementation.
… take part in the inter-country exchange that will make our lives global again.
… provide feedback on the technical design.
… encourage your country to support PEPP-PT development and deployment.
… obtain certification for your implementation through PEPP-PT and thus inherit our privacy and security certifications and credentials.
… provide your national cyber-security, data protection, and health agencies with a solution that saves the effort of building certified services from scratch.
… receive planning and financial aid for installation and trust campaigns in your country.
… receive planning and execution aid for integrating PEPP-PT into your country’s strategy.


You can either implement PEPP-PT directly using the provided app/trust service reference implementation and add country-specific aspects
OR
Integrate PEPP-PT technology into an existing solution through the modules in our  services.

Please get in touch.
We welcome you on board.

WHO WE ARE
PEPP-PT is an organization that will be incorporated as a non-profit in Switzerland. PEPP-PT was created to provide a solution to this crisis that adheres to strong European privacy and data protection laws and principles. The PEPP-PT technical mechanisms and standards fully protect privacy while taking advantage of the possibilities of digital technology to maximize the speed and real-time capability of national pandemic responses. Our goal is to make this technology available to all countries, managers of infectious disease responses, and developers as quickly and seamlessly as possible.



The PEPP-PT team, which as of 31st March 2020,  has more than 130 members across eight European countries, includes scientists, technologists, and experts from well-known international research institutions and companies. We have expertise in communication, psychology, epidemiology, proximity tracing, security, privacy, encryption, data protection, application development, scalable systems, supercomputing infrastructure, and artificial intelligence.


PePP-PT e.V. i.Gr
c/o Hans-Christian Boos
Eisenmannstr 3
80331 München

Telefon: +49-69-40568-200
E-Mail: info@pepp-pt.org

Das Impressum gilt für: pepp-pt.org
Registergericht:  Antrag gestellt
Registernummer: noch nicht erteilt

The supervisory authority responsible for PePP-PT e.V. i.Gr. is:

Bayerisches Landesamt für Datenschutzaufsicht (BayLDA)
Promenade 27, 91522 Ansbach, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0) 981 53 1300
Fax: +49 (0) 981 53 98 1300